Publicaciones

# Nombre Autores Descripcion Enlace
1 Immunothrombotic dysregulation in chagas disease and COVID-19: a comparative study of anticoagulation. Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Hernández-Huerta MT, Papy-García D, Barritault D, Zenteno E, Sánchez Navarro LM, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Matias Cervantes CA, Martínez Cruz M, Mayoral Andrade G, López Cervantes M, Vázquez Martínez G, López Sánchez C, Pina Canseco S, Martínez Cruz R, Pérez-Campos E. Chagas and COVID-19 are diseases caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and SARS-CoV-2, respectively. These diseases present very different etiological agents despite showing similarities such as susceptibility/risk factors, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), recognition of glycosaminoglycans, inflammation, vascular leakage hypercoagulability, microthrombosis, and endotheliopathy; all of which suggest, in part, treatments with similar principles. Here, both diseases are compared, focusing mainly on the characteristics related to dysregulated immunothrombosis. Given the in-depth investigation of molecules and mechanisms related to microthrombosis in COVID-19, it is necessary to reconsider a prompt treatment of Chagas disease with oral anticoagulants.
2 Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 mutations in Mexico, Belize, and isolated regions of Guatemala and its implication in the diagnosis. Hernández-Huerta MT, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Romero Díaz C, Martínez Cruz M, Mayoral-Andrade G, Sánchez Navarro LM, Pina-Canseco MDS, Cruz Parada E, Martínez Cruz R, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Pérez Santiago AD, Vásquez Martínez G, Pérez-Campos E, Matias-Cervantes CA. The genomic sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide are publicly available and are derived from studies due to the increase in the number of cases. The importance of study of mutations is related to the possible virulence and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. To identify circulating mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala to find out if the same strain spread to the south, and analyze the specificity of the primers used for diagnosis in these samples. Twenty three complete SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences, available in the GISAID database from May 8 to September 11, 2020 were analyzed and aligned versus the genomic sequence reported in Wuhan, China (NC_045512.2), using Clustal Omega. Open reading frames were translated using the ExPASy Translate Tool and UCSF Chimera (v.1.12) for amino acid substitutions analysis. Finally, the sequences were aligned versus primers used in the diagnosis of COVID-19. One hundred and eighty seven distinct variants were identified, of which 102 are missense, 66 synonymous and 19 noncoding. P4715L and P5828L substitutions in replicase polyprotein were found, as well as D614G in spike protein and L84S in ORF8 in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. The primers design by CDC of United States showed a positive E value. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala present similar mutations related to a virulent strain of greater infectivity, which could mean a greater capacity for inclusion in the host genome and be related to an increased spread of the virus in these countries, furthermore, its diagnosis would be affected.
3 Should RT-PCR be considered a gold standard in the diagnosis of COVID-19?. Hernández-Huerta MT Ph D, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L Ph D, Sánchez Navarro LM, Mayoral-Andrade G Ph D, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E Ph D, Zenteno E Ph D, Pérez-Campos E Ph D. In reference to the comments by Dramé M., et al., 2020,1 that question the possibility of whether the reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) for viral load should be considered a gold standard in the diagnosis of Covid-19.
4 Multiple Origins of Extracellular DNA Traps Edgar Ramos-Martínez, Leticia Hernández-González, Iván Ramos-Martínez, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Georgina I López-Cortés, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, María Teresa Hernández-Huerta, Marco V José. Extracellular DNA traps (ETs) are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial mechanisms present in protozoa, plants, and animals. In this review, we compare their similarities in species of different taxa, and put forward the hypothesis that ETs have multiple origins. Our results are consistent with a process of evolutionary convergence in multicellular organisms through the application of a congruency test. Furthermore, we discuss why multicellularity is related to the presence of a mechanism initiating the formation of ETs.
5 The Role of the SARS-CoV-2 S-Protein Glycosylation in the Interaction of SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 and Immunological Responses. Eleazar Ramírez Hernández, Luis Fernando Hernández-Zimbrón, Nayeli Martínez Zúñiga, Juan José Leal-García, Violeta Ignacio Hernández, Luis Eduardo Ucharima-Corona, Eduardo Pérez Campos, Edgar Zenteno. The current pandemic is caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is, in turn, induced by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that triggers an acute respiratory disease. In recent years, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 is the third highly pathogenic event and large-scale epidemic affecting the human population. It follows the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. This novel SARS-CoV-2 employs the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, like SARS-CoV, and spreads principally in the respiratory tract. The viral spike (S) protein of coronaviruses facilities the attachment to the cellular receptor, entrance, and membrane fusion. The S protein is a glycoprotein and is critical to elicit an immune response. Glycosylation is a biologically significant post-translational modification in virus surface proteins. These glycans play important roles in the viral life cycle, structure, immune evasion, and cell infection. However, it is necessary to search for new information about viral behavior and immunological host's response after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The present review discusses the implications of the CoV-2 S protein glycosylation in the SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction and the immunological response. Elucidation of the glycan repertoire on the spike protein can propel research for the development of an appropriate vaccine.
6 The influence of hydrogen ions on coagulation in traumatic brain injury, explored by molecular dynamics. Carlos Romero Díaz, Laura Pérez Campos Mayoral, María Teresa Hernández Huerta, Abraham Salvador Majluf-Cruz, Stephanie Elizabeth Plascencia Mora, Eduardo Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Margarito Martínez Cruz, Edgar Zenteno, Carlos Alberto Matias Cervantes, Gabriela Vásquez Martínez, Ruth Martínez Cruz, Miguel Ángel Reyes Franco, Eli Cruz Parada, Socorro Pina Canseco, Eduardo Pérez-Campos Mayoral. Background: Patients in intensive care units with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) frequently present acid-base abnormalities and coagulability disorders, which complicate their condition.Objective: To identify protonation through in silico simulations of molecules involved in the process of coagulation in standard laboratory tests.Materials and methods: Ten patients with TBI were selected from the intensive care unit in addition to ten "healthy control subjects", and another nine patients as "disease control subjects"; the latter being a comparative group, corresponding to subjects with diabetes mellitus 2 (DM2). Fibrinogen, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, and D-dimer in the presence of acidification were evaluated in 20 healthy subjects in order to compare clinical results with molecular dynamics (MD), and to explain proton interactions and coagulation molecules. Results: The TBI group presented a slight, non-significant increase in D-dimer; but this was not present in "disease control subjects". Levels of fibrinogen, FVII, FIX, FX, and D-dimer were affected in the presence of acidification. We observed that various specific residues of coagulation factors "trap" ions.Conclusion: Protonation of tissue factor and factor VIIa may favor anticoagulant mechanisms, and protonation does not affect ligand binding sites of GPIIb/IIIa (PAC1) suggesting other causes for the low affinity to PAC1.
7 Fiber Optic Sensors: A Review for Glucose Measurement. Cano Perez JL, Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez J, Perezcampos Mayoral C, Pérez-Campos EL, Del Socorro Pina Canseco M, Tepech Carrillo L, Mayoral LP, Vargas Treviño M, Apreza EL, Rojas Laguna R. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder, being globally one of the most deadly diseases. This disease requires continually monitoring of the body's glucose levels. There are different types of sensors for measuring glucose, most of them invasive to the patient. Fiber optic sensors have been proven to have advantages compared to conventional sensors and they have great potential for various applications, especially in the biomedical area. Compared to other sensors, they are smaller, easy to handle, mostly non-invasive, thus leading to a lower risk of infection, high precision, well correlated and inexpensive. The objective of this review article is to compare different types of fiber optic sensors made with different experimental techniques applied to biomedicine, especially for glucose sensing. Observations are made on the way of elaboration, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that each one could have in real applications.
8 A letter to the editor on "World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Hernández-Huerta MT, Mayoral-Andrade G, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Pérez-Campos E.
9 Obesity subtypes, related biomarkers & heterogeneity Mayoral LP, Andrade GM, Mayoral EP, Huerta TH, Canseco SP, Rodal Canales FJ, Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Cruz MM, Pérez Santiago AD, Alpuche JJ, Zenteno E, Ruíz HM, Cruz RM, Jeronimo JH, Perez-Campos E. Obesity is a serious medical condition worldwide, which needs new approaches and recognized international consensus in treating diseases leading to morbidity. The aim of this review was to examine heterogeneous links among the various phenotypes of obesity in adults. Proteins and associated genes in each group were analysed to differentiate between biomarkers. A variety of terms for classification and characterization within this pathology are currently in use; however, there is no clear consensus in terminology. The most significant groups reviewed include metabolically healthy obese, metabolically abnormal obese, metabolically abnormal, normal weight and sarcopenic obese. These phenotypes do not define particular genotypes or epigenetic gene regulation, or proteins related to inflammation. There are many other genes linked to obesity, though the value of screening all of those for diagnosis has low predictive results, as there are no significant biomarkers. It is important to establish a consensus in the terminology used and the characteristics attributed to obesity subtypes. The identification of specific molecular biomarkers is also required for better diagnosis in subtypes of obesity.
10 Aggregation and Molecular Properties of β-Glucosidase Isoform II in Chayote ( Sechium edule) Cruz Rodríguez A, Sánchez Esperanza FA, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Huerta MT, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Matias-Cervantes CA, Martínez Barras A, Mayoral-Andrade G, Santos Pineda LÁ, Díaz Barrita AJ, Zenteno E, Romero Díaz C, Martínez Cruz R, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Bernabé Pérez EA, Pérez Santiago AD, Pina-Canseco MDS, Martínez Cruz M. The presence of isoforms of β-glucosidase has been reported in some grasses such as sorghum, rice and maize. This work aims to extract and characterize isoform II in β-glucosidase from S. edule. A crude extract was prepared without buffer solution and adjusted to pH 4.6. Contaminating proteins were precipitated at 4 °C for 24 h. The supernatant was purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) column, molecular exclusion on Sephacryl S-200HR, and exchange anionic on QFF column. Electrophoretic analyzes revealed a purified enzyme with aggregating molecular complex on SDS-PAGE, Native-PAGE, and AU-PAGE. Twelve peptides fragments were identified by nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-ESI-MS/MS), which presented as 61% identical to Cucurbita moschata β-glucosidase and 55.74% identical to β-glucosidase from Cucumis sativus, another Cucurbitaceous member. The relative masses which contained 39% hydrophobic amino acids ranged from 982.49 to 2,781.26. The enzyme showed a specificity to β-d-glucose with a Km of 4.59 mM, a Vmax value of 104.3 μM∙min-1 and a kcat of 10,087 μM∙min-1 using p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of molecular aggregates can be attributed to non-polar amino acids. This property is not mediated by a β-glucosidase aggregating factor (BGAF) as in grasses (maize and sorghum). The role of these aggregates is discussed.
11 Molecules and Prostaglandins Related to Embryo Tolerance Mayoral Andrade G, Vásquez Martínez G, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Hernández-Huerta MT, Zenteno E, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Martínez Cruz M, Martínez Cruz R, Matias-Cervantes CA, Meraz Cruz N, Romero Díaz C, Cruz-Parada E, Pérez-Campos E. It is generally understood that the entry of semen into the female reproductive tract provokes molecular and cellular changes facilitating conception and pregnancy. We show a broader picture of the participation of prostaglandins in the fertilization, implantation and maintenance of the embryo. A large number of cells and molecules are related to signaling networks, which regulate tolerance to implantation and maintenance of the embryo and fetus. In this work, many of those cells and molecules are analyzed. We focus on platelets, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and group 2 innate lymphoid cells involved in embryo tolerance in order to have a wider view of how prostaglandins participate. The combination of platelets and neutrophil extracellular traps (Nets), uterine innate lymphoid cells (uILC), Treg cells, NK cells, and sex hormones have an important function in immunological tolerance. In both animals and humans, the functions of these cells can be regulated by prostaglandins and soluble factors in seminal plasma to achieve an immunological balance, which maintains fetal-maternal tolerance. Prostaglandins, such as PGI2 and PGE2, play an important role in the suppression of the previously mentioned cells. PGI2 inhibits platelet aggregation, in addition to IL-5 and IL-13 expression in ILC2, and PGE2 inhibits some neutrophil functions, such as chemotaxis and migration processes, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis, ROS production, and the formation of extracellular traps, which could help prevent trophoblast injury and fetal loss. The implications are related to fertility in female when seminal fluid is deposited in the vagina or uterus.
12 Factors related to asymptomatic or severe COVID-19 infection. Mayoral Andrade G, Vásquez Martínez G, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Hernández-Huerta MT, Zenteno E, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Martínez Cruz M, Martínez Cruz R, Matias-Cervantes CA, Meraz Cruz N, Romero Díaz C, Cruz-Parada E, Pérez-Campos E. The factors that may contribute to a COVID-19 patient remaining in the asymptomatic stage, or to the infection evolving into the more serious stages are examined. In particular, we refer to the TMPRSS2 expression profile, balance of androgen and estrogen, blood group-A and/or B, nonsynonymous mutations in ORF3, and proteins NS7b and NS8 in SARS-CoV-2. Also, we review other factors related to the susceptibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
13 In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo short-term screening of DHEA nitrate derivatives activity over Trypanosoma cruzi Ninoa and TH strains from Oaxaca State, México. Luis Roberto Domínguez-Díaz, Ma. Eugenia Ochoa, Delia Soto-Castro, Norberto Farfán, Maricela Morales-Chamorro, Lilian Yépez-Mulia, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Rosa Santillan, Adriana Moreno-Rodríguez. Chagas disease is a health problem that affects millions of persons, currently Nifurtimox (Nfx) and Benznidazole (Bz) are the unique drugs to treat it. However, these drugs produce adverse effects and high toxicity, which has motivated the search for new candidate drugs. Based on reports about the extensive biological activity of steroidal nitrate esters, in this study three nitrate esters steroids (1b, 2b and 4b) were synthetized and characterized from Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1a), 19-hydroxy-DHEA (2a), and Androst-5-en-3β,17β-diol (4a), respectively. In addition, compounds 3a and 3b were obtained by introducing an α-ethynyl and a β-hydroxyl groups at position 17 of 2b and further nitration of the hydroxyl group. The trypanocidal activity of these steroids was evaluated in vitro against the epimastigote stage of two T. cruzi strains, Ninoa and TH, and their cytotoxicity over J774.2 macrophage cell line was assayed. Compounds 3a, 3b, and 4a shown higher trypanocidal activity than Bz and Nfx against epimastigotes of Ninoa strain, whereas DHEA (1a) and its nitrate derivative 1b showed higher activity than the reference drugs against the TH strain epimastigote. None of the compounds showed activity in the ex vivo assays against the blood trypomastigote of both strains. Interestingly, the selectivity index of Androst-5-en-3β,17β-diol 4a was almost twice the value of Nfx and 50 times more than Bz, against Ninoa and TH strains, respectively. Therefore, compound 4a could represent a valuable starting point toward the optimization of steroid derivatives as trypanocidal agents.
14 TSH Levels in Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the 97.5th Percentile of the Population Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Hernández-Huerta MT, Mayoral-Andrade G, Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Zenteno E, Martínez-Cruz R, Martínez Ruíz H, Martínez Cruz M, Pérez Santiago AD, Pérez-Campos E. The debate regarding the cutoff point in the treatment of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (Shypo) is ongoing. Generally, two different groups are identified for treatment by levels of 10 and 20 mIU/L. Nevertheless, the question remains, "what cutoff point should be chosen?" We have written a selective nonsystematic review focused on the 97.5 percentile reference value reported in healthy subjects in a number of countries and observed important disparities, which partly show the challenge of identifying a single cutoff point for those patients needing medication. We identified studies of TSH on the natural history of subclinical hypothyroidism from population-based prospective cohort studies, which follow up patients for several years. The evolution of TSH levels in these patients is variable. Some cases of TSH may return to lower levels at different stages over the years, but others may not, possibly even developing into overt thyroid failure, also variable. We analyzed factors that may explain the normalization of serum TSH levels. In addition, we found that thorough population-based prospective cohort studies following up on TSH levels, thyroid antibodies, and ultrasonography are important in decisions made in the treatment of patients. However, the 97.5 percentile reference value varies in different countries; therefore, an international cutoff point for subclinical hypothyroidism cannot be recommended.
15 In vitro activity of steroidal dendrimers on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote form with PAMAM dendrons modified by "click" chemistry. Juárez-Chávez L, Pina-Canseco S, Soto-Castro D, Santillan R, Magaña-Vergara NE, Salazar-Schettino PM, Cabrera-Bravo M, Pérez-Campos E. The increasing use of dendrimers shows promise for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, Chagas disease and other conditions such as cancer. In this study, the activity of 1st and 2nd generation dendrimers over T. cruzi in the epimastigote stage was tested. Dendrimers were derived from α-ethynylestradiol (EE) modified with PAMAM-type dendrons through a triazole ring. The activity of each compound was evaluated in five doses (from 1.3 to 20 µmol/mL) by flow cytometry, including benznidazole (Bz) as positive control. The findings show that an equivalent concentration of 14.8 µmol/mL of 2nd generation (G) dendrimer is 8 times more effective than Bz at 24 h, and it maintains its superiority at 48 h with an IC50 = 1.25 ± 0.19 µmol/mL. A TUNEL assay showed that dendrimers induce cell death in T. cruzi epimastigotes mostly via apoptosis, unlike Bz, which induces death via necrosis in more than 50% of cells.
16 Apart From Rhoptries, Identification of Toxoplasma gondii's O-GlcNAcylated Proteins Reinforces the Universality of the O-GlcNAcome Aquino-Gil MO, Kupferschmid M, Shams-Eldin H, Schmidt J, Yamakawa N, Mortuaire M, Krzewinski F, Hardivillé S, Zenteno E, Rolando C, Bray F, Pérez Campos E, Dubremetz JF, Perez-Cervera Y, Schwarz RT, Lefebvre T. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation or O-GlcNAcylation is a widespread post-translational modification that belongs to the large and heterogeneous group of glycosylations. The functions managed by O-GlcNAcylation are diverse and include regulation of transcription, replication, protein's fate, trafficking, and signaling. More and more evidences tend to show that deregulations in the homeostasis of O-GlcNAcylation are involved in the etiology of metabolic diseases, cancers and neuropathologies. O-GlcNAc transferase or OGT is the enzyme that transfers the N-acetylglucosamine residue onto target proteins confined within the cytosolic and nuclear compartments. A form of OGT was predicted for Toxoplasma and recently we were the first to show evidence of O-GlcNAcylation in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. Numerous studies have explored the O-GlcNAcome in a wide variety of biological models but very few focus on protists. In the present work, we used enrichment on sWGA-beads and immunopurification to identify putative O-GlcNAcylated proteins in Toxoplasma gondii. Many of the proteins found to be O-GlcNAcylated were originally described in higher eukaryotes and participate in cell shape organization, response to stress, protein synthesis and metabolism. In a more original way, our proteomic analyses, confirmed by sWGA-enrichment and click-chemistry, revealed that rhoptries, proteins necessary for invasion, are glycosylated. Together, these data show that regardless of proteins strictly specific to organisms, O-GlcNAcylated proteins are rather similar among living beings
17 Tuberculosis Testing in Children Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Mayoral-Andrade G, Perez-Campos Mayoral E, Pérez-Campos E.
18 [Increasing consumption of dietary fiber complementary to the treatment of metabolic syndrome] García-Montalvo IA, Méndez Díaz SY, Aguirre Guzmán N, Sánchez Medina MA, Matías Pérez D, Pérez Campos E. Introduction: the amount of fiber ingested in Latin American countries is lower (10-20 g/d) than recommended (35 g/d). An increase isrecommended for patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to reduce cardiovascular risk, as well as to prevent obesity and other complications. Objective: to evaluate whether increased dietary fiber consumption complements MS treatment and improves clinical and laboratory parameters in subjects at the San Martín Mexicapam "La Joya" Health Center, Oaxaca (Mexico). Methods: an analytical-longitudinal study was carried out from January to April 2017, to evaluate nutritional status before and after intervention with dietary fiber and to measure cholesterol levels, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. An increase of 15 g of fiber (fruits-vegetables and/or oat bran and/or wheat bran) was indicated in the usual diet over eight weeks. Results: the sample consisted of 30 participants from the Mutual Aid Group diagnosed with MS, with an average age of 37.26 years, starting from a body mass index (BMI) of 30.75 kg/cm2 and levels of fasting glycemia at 153.87 mg/dl, triglycerides at 209.67 mg/dl, and cholesterol at 213.81 mg/dl. Following the intervention, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was obtained with a BMI of 29.7 kg/cm2, fasting glycemia at 127.77 mg/dl, triglycerides at 179.71 mg/dl and cholesterol at 207.13 mg/dl. Conclusion: a reduction in the results for the parameters tested in patients of MS is improved by a greater consumption of dietary fiber, such as oat bran. However, additional studies are required to generate clearer recommendations.
19 The Role of Platelets in Ischemic Conditioning mAlpuche J, Quírino L, Sánchez-Vega JT, Yap J, Pérez-Campos E, Cabrera-Fuentes HA. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Platelets, as the main regulators of hemostasis, are major players in acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Additionally, platelets are modified by endogenous cardioprotective strategies such as ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic conditioning. In this article, we provide an overview of the functionional role of platelets in acute myocardial IRI, and highlight their potential as targets for cardioprotection to improve health outcomes in patients with IHD.
20 Geographic and Ethnographic Variations of Hemoglobin A1C Pérez-Campos Mayoral E, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Mayoral Andrade G, Hernández-Huerta MT, Martínez Cruz M, Pérez-Campos E.
21 Solvent-free synthesis of 6β-phenylamino-cholestan-3β,5α-diol and (25R)-6β-phenylaminospirostan-3β,5α-dio las potential antiproliferative agents Soto-Castro D, Lara Contreras RC, Pina-Canseco MDS, Santillán R, Hernández-Huerta MT, Negrón Silva GE, Pérez-Campos E, Rincón S. In this paper is described a synthetic route to 6β-phenylamino-cholestan-3β,5α-diol and (25R)-6β-phenylaminospirostan-3β,5α-diol, starting from cholesterol and diosgenin, respectively. The products were obtained in two steps by epoxidation followed by aminolysis, through an environmentally friendly and solvent-free method mediated by SZ (sulfated zirconia) as catalyst. The use of SZ allows chemo- and regioselective ring opening of the 5,6α-epoxide during the aminolysis reaction eliminating the required separation of the epoxide mixture. The products obtained were spectroscopically characterized by 1H, PENDANT 13C NMR and HETCOR experiments, and complemented with FTIR-ATR and HRMS. The antiproliferative effect of the β-aminoalcohols was evaluated on MCF-7 cells after 48h of incubation, by MTT and CVS assays. These methodologies showed that both compounds have antiproliferative activity, being more active the cholesterol analogue. Additionally, the cell images obtained by Harris' Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining protocol, evidenced formation of apoptotic bodies due to the presence of the obtained β-aminoalcohols in a dose-dependent manner.
22 Platelets and Platelet-Derived Microvesicles as Immune Effectors in Type 2 Diabetes Cortez-Espinosa N, Mayoral LP, Perez-Campos E, Cabrera Fuentes HA, Mayoral EP, Martínez-Cruz R, Canseco SP, Andrade GM, Cruz MM, Velasco IG, Cruz PH. The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and systemic inflammation may increase platelet reactivity and the accelerated development of vascular disease. Platelets are able to modulate the function of immune cells via the direct release of growth factors and pro-inflammatory chemokines through the production of microvesicles. The microvesicles trigger a transcellular delivery system of bioactive molecules to other cells acting as vectors in the exchange of biological information. Here, we consider the influence of platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles on cells of the immune system and the implications in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
23 Reduced platelet aggregation in women after intercourse: a possible role for the cyclooxygenase pathway Mayoral-Andrade G, Pérez-Campos-Mayoral L, Majluf-Cruz A, Perez-Campos Mayoral E, Perez Campos Mayoral C, Rocha-Núñez A, Martinez M, Zenteno E, Hernandez-Gonzalez L, López Juan MG, Pérez-Santiago AD, Pérez-Campos E. We hypothesise that molecules in the cyclooxygenase pathway affect platelet activity when seminal fluid (SF) is present. We considered the influence of SF on platelet aggregation in women, and believe that the prostanoids in SF signalling are significant. Thirty-one female subjects were studied, 20 of whom were sexually active. Male partners were given either aspirin or indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. The 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (6-keto PGF1α) and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) in SF were measured by competitive assay. Platelets and prostanoids were evaluated in women, periodically, before and after intercourse. The platelets were tested with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA). To block the interaction between the uterus and SF, some couples used condoms. We found that the 6-keto prostaglandin F1α in urine at 2 hours post-intercourse (1418.75 pg/mL, Std 688.39) was greater than pre-intercourse (772.68 pg/mL, Std 116.54). Post-intercourse, a transient decrease in platelet aggregation was observed in women whose partners did not use condoms. Averages for platelet aggregation were 20.16% with ADP, and more significantly, 37.79% with AA after 2 hours. In contrast, couples using condoms showed no changes, averaging 64.02% with ADP and 72.06% with AA. Women whose partners were taking aspirin or indomethacin also showed no changes. SF from men taking aspirin or indomethacin led to no reduction in platelet aggregometry in their partners. These results indicate that in cases of exposure to SF, the transient change in women's platelet activity could be related to the cyclooxygenase pathway.
24 Corrigendum to "Molecules in seminal plasma related to platelets in preeclampsia" [Med. Hypotheses 93 (2016) 27-29] García-Montalvo IA, Andrade GM, Mayoral LP, Canseco SP, Cruz RM, Martínez-Cruz M, Zenteno E, Mayoral EP, Gallegos Velasco I, Hernandez-Huerta MT, Matias-Perez D, Pérez-Campos E.
25 Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils Bazán-Salinas IL, Matías-Pérez D, Pérez-Campos E, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, García-Montalvo IA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.
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26 Ascariasis as cause of intestinal occlusion and concurrent appendicitis. Beltran P, Espinoza C, Hernandez C, Chavez D, Reyna W, Cruz G, Perez Campos E.Trop Biomed. Intestinal occlusion by ascariasis is a commonly seen socio-economic status low, is associated with poor sanitary hygiene. It is rare to see a case with both intestinal occlusion and appendicitis at the same time, as described in this report.
27 Molecules in seminal plasma related to platelets in preeclampsia García-Montalvo IA, Mayoral Andrade G, Perez-Campos Mayoral L, Pina Canseco S, Martinez Cruz R, Martínez-Cruz M, Zenteno E, Perez-Campos Mayoral E, Gallegos Velasco I, Hernandez-Huerta MT, Matias-Perez D, Pérez-Campos E. Prostaglandins present in seminal fluid are actively involved in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle maintenance, reproduction, and inflammatory processes. Seminal plasma contains molecules, such as oxylipins, which possess cell signaling functions. Several studies have shown that specific molecules in seminal fluid can increase passive diffusion, and cause interactions in the female reproductive tract. This may provoke a cascade of cellular and molecular changes in general health and certain diseases. This study examines the hypothesis that the molecules in seminal fluid are involved in platelet activity. The molecules diffuse through cells and membranes, affecting Hoxa 10, binding ganglioside pathways, and acting over platelet function. When these molecules are at low levels, they may trigger prothrombotic states, explaining the pathophysiology of haemostatic response, such as preeclampsia, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
28 [Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in children] Rosas-Sumano AB, Rodal-Canales FJ, Barrientos Pérez M, Cárdenas-Morales BE, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Pérez-Campos E. Background: Obesity during childhood is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. Aim: To measure insulin and glucose levels and parameters of insulin resistance in obese, overweight and normal weight Mexican children. Material and methods: Comparative study of 21 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) over percentile 95, aged 10 ± 1 years (10 males), 14 children aged 10 ± 2 (7 males) with a BMI between percentiles 85 and 94 and 16 children aged 9 ± 2 years (3 males) with a body mass index between percentiles 10 and 84. Body weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and a blood sample was obtained to measure fasting glucose and insulin levels. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Results: Among obese, overweight and normal weight children, insulin levels were 14.9 (95% CI 10.90-18.99), 7.20 (CI 5.12-9.28) and 4.73 (CI 95% 1.92-7.53) uU/ml, respectively. The figures for HOMA were 3.16 (95% CI 2.20-4.12), 1.49 (95% CI 1.03-1.94) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.35-1.60), respectively. The figures for QUICKI were 0.331 (95% CI 0.319-0.343), 0.371 (95% CI 0.349-0.393) and 0.419 (95% CI 0.391-0.446), respectively. Compared to their normal weight counterparts, the risk of obese children and those with a waist circumference over percentile 90 of having a HOMA over 3.16 was 17 and 10 times higher, respectively. BMI correlated better than waist circumference with insulin levels. Conclusions: Obese children have higher levels of insulin resistance than their normal weight counterparts.
29 [A GENETIC VIEW OF FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA] Matías-Pérez D, Pérez-Campos E, García-Montalvo IA. Objective: to show reviewed information of published studies relating to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH), nutrition, and genes involved in the development of this pathology. Results: an analysis showing familial hypercholesterolemia as a disorder occuring due to mutations in gene encoding of the LDL receptor, which can be transmitted as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. It's diagnosis is important for those with a greater likelihood of premature coronary disease, and can significantly reduce life expectancy. Conclusions: there are no specific clinical criteria with absolute predictive value for the diagnosis of HF, Genetic diagnosis can prove functional defects in the LDL receptor gene, constituting definitive confirmation of the diagnosis, thus the importance of presenting a genetic vision of development of this disease, which can be treated adequately through diet therapy affecting future generations in the family concerned.
30 Association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older: a multivariate analysis of a population-based survey. Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, Ávila-Burgos L, Kowolik MJ, Maupomé G. Background: The possible association between oral infection and chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied intensively. The present study is designed to determine the strength of association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older. Methods: Using the tools and sampling strategies of the World Health Survey of the World Health Organization, cross-sectional data were collected in Mexico in the National Performance Assessment Survey (probabilistic, multistage, and cluster sampling). Dental information was available for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico. Angina and edentulism are self-reported in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using binary logistic regression adjusting for complex samples. Results: A total of 13,966 participants, representing a population of 29,853,607 individuals, were included. Of the complete study population, 3,052,263 (10.2%) were completely toothless, and 673,810 (2.3%) were diagnosed with angina pectoris. After adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, body mass index, and sex, the effect of edentulism on angina was modified by age (interaction), being more marked in the younger age group (odds ratio [OR] = exp(2.5597) =12.93) than in the older individuals surveyed (OR = exp(2.5597 + (-0.0334)) =12.51). Additionally, low physical activity (OR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.22) and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.90) were more likely to be associated with angina pectoris. Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study, conducted in a representative sample of Mexican adults, suggest that an association exists between edentulism and angina pectoris. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this association.
31 National survey of oral/dental conditions related to tobacco and alcohol use in Mexican adults Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, Ávila-Burgos L, Mendoza-Rodríguez M, Maupomé G. Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR=1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR=1.26, p < 0.001; OR=1.18, p < 0.01 and OR=1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.
32 National survey of oral/dental conditions related to tobacco and alcohol use in Mexican adults Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, Ávila-Burgos L, Mendoza-Rodríguez M, Maupomé G. Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR=1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR=1.26, p < 0.001; OR=1.18, p < 0.01 and OR=1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.
33 Better detection of platelet aggregation in patients with metabolic syndrome using epinephrine and ADP Perez-Campos-Mayoral L, Pérez-Campos E, Zenteno E, Majluf-Cruz A, Perez-Ortega E, Matias-Pérez D, Rodal-Canales FJ, Martínez-Cruz R, Pina-Canseco S, Reyes Franco MA, Mayoral Andrade G, Hernández P, Gallegos B. Background: Patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) often have increased platelet aggregation. In order to determine which concentration detects a higher level of platelet aggregation in patients with MS, the agonists ADP and epinephrine were compared. Methods: The study included 56 subjects with MS and 53 healthy subjects. Blood pressure, weight, body-mass index, and hip-to-waist ratio were collected from all subjects. Insulin, glucose, total serum cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, total triglycerides, markers of plasma atherogenicity, and indices of insulin resistance were measured in all participants. For aggregometry assays, the Born method was used. Platelets were treated with ADP and epinephrine in decreasing concentrations of 2.34, 1.17, and 0.58 μM, as well as, 11.0, 1.1, and 0.55 μM, respectively. ROC curves were plotted to define the diagnostic efficiency of epinephrine levels for MS. Results: Among healthy individuals and MS patients significant differences were observed in body weight, body-mass index, waist-circumference, levels of insulin, indices of insulin resistance, and levels of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and total triglycerides. There was a significant difference in the detection of increased platelet aggregation using 11.0 μM and 0.55 μM epinephrine and 0.58 μM ADP. With both agonists, ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of >0.8 for 11.0 μM epinephrine and 2.34 μM ADP. However, for MS patients, 11.0 μM epinephrine had a slightly better diagnostic efficiency than 2.34 μM ADP. Conclusions: It was found that 11.0 μM epinephrine and 2.34 μM ADP detected better platelet aggregation in patients with MS than in healthy subject. Both concentrations detected increased platelet aggregation in patients with MS.
34 In vitro antiparasitic activity of new thiosemicarbazones in strains of Trypanosoma cruzi Moreno-Rodríguez A, Salazar-Schettino PM, Bautista JL, Hernández-Luis F, Torrens H, Guevara-Gómez Y, Pina-Canseco S, Torres MB, Cabrera-Bravo M, Martinez CM, Pérez-Campos E. In this study thiosemicarbazones derivatives of 5-[(trifluoromethyl)phenylthio]-2-furaldehyde were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their efficiency in challenging the growth of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. A number of compounds were synthesized from 5-bromo-2-furfuraldehyde using nucleophilic aromatic substitution, with a series of trifluoromethyl thiolates, followed by condensation reactions with thiosemicarbazide. Their molecular structures were determined by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. When tested with T. cruzi, they showed a stronger reaction, similar to nifurtimox and benznidazole, with the 5-[nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyltio]-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (compound 4) showing the highest antiparasitic activity. This improved activity may be explained due to the nitro group present in the molecule, which potentiates its activity. The thiosemicarbazone derivatives in this study showed no apoptosis in platelets or monocytes, nor did they induce platelet activation. The trypanocidal activity of these substances represents a good starting point for a medicinal chemistry program aimed at therapy for Chagas' disease.
35 Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, Avila-Burgos L, Mendoza-Rodríguez M, Maupomé G. Background: To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material and methods: We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results: In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions: The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. Dentists and health care professionals need to recognize the effect of edentulism on quality of life among elders people.
36 [Asymptomatic human infection from contact with dogs: a case of human ehrlichiosis] Beatriz Silva A, Pina Canseco S, Gabriel de la Torre Mdel P, Mayoral Silva A, Mayoral MÁ, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, López Martínez J, Pérez-Campos E. Introduction: Living with dogs leads one to consider the necessity of identifying canine infections found in the people with whom the dogs live. Objective: Dogs which were clinically and serologically positive with the infections Ehirlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria Immitis were sought. People with the same infections were also identified. Material and methods: From a population of 80 dogs identified in the villages of San Bartolo Coyotepec and San Agustín Etla (suburbs peripheral to the city of Oaxaca, Mexico), 27 dogs were selected for study, all of which had adenomegaly, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and fevers of at least 43° C. Using enzyme immunoassay in this population of dogs and their closest human contacts, antibodies for Ehirlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the antigen for Dirofilaria immitis were sought. Positive results in humans were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Ten dogs with the clinical signs mentioned above tested positive for antibodies to Ehrlichia canis; two cases tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum; one case tested positive for Dirofilaria Immitis. From human contact, one person tested positive for Ehirlichia canis; this case was confirmed by DNA amplification by means of PCR. Conclusion: It is necessary to identify the population of sick dogs in order to reduce related infections in people.
37 [Principal reasons for extraction of permanent tooth in a sample of Mexicans adults] Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, De la Rosa-Santillana R, Navarete-Hernández Jde J, Maupomé G. Background: Tooth extractions are one of the most common procedures in oral surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for tooth extraction in adult patients seeking care at teaching dental clinics. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 331 subjects between 18 and 85 (45.37 +/- 13.85) years of age seeking dental care in dental clinics of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, from January 2009 to December, 2009. Data pertaining to age, sex, tooth number and the reason for extraction according to Kay & Blinkhorn were analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: 779 extractions were undertaken. The main reason for extraction was dental caries (43.1%), periodontal disease (PD) (27.9%), and prosthetic reasons (21.5%). There was no significant difference across sex for reasons of extraction (p > 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found for age (extraction due to periodontal disease increased with age); in patients attending in a single visit vs. patients attending a series of dental appointments (caries reasons were more common in patients having a single appointment vs. PD in those attending a series of appointments); for type of teeth (upper, posterior, and molars were extracted primarily because of caries, while lower, anterior and incisors were more often extracted because of PD). Conclusions: Dental caries was the most common reason for tooth extraction, followed by periodontal disease. Differences in the reasons for extraction were observed across patient characteristics and type of tooth.
38 A study on inorganic elements in psammomas from ovarian & thyroid cancer Olivera Merlin PS, Leyva Bohorquez Pdel C, Martínez-Cruz R, Pina Canseco S, Hernandez P, Martínez-Cruz M, Sánchez Rubio M, Martínez Martínez L, Pérez-Campos E. Background & objectives: Concentric lamellar calcifications known as psammoma bodies (PB) are found in benign and malignant tumours. Whether or not the inorganic element concentrations in psammomas are similar to serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary and thyroid papillary cancer tissues has not yet been ascertained. We undertook this retrospective study to establish if there is any difference in the concentrations of inorganic ions found in psammomas in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, and those found in thyroid papillary cancer tissue. Methods: PB samples from patients with adenocarcinoma of the ovary (n = 10) and with thyroid papillary cancer (n = 10) were analyzed through inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). Results: There were no significant differences in the concentrations of inorganic elements in PB from thyroid papillary cancer than in those PB from ovarian cancer. Interpretation & conclusions: Differences in the concentrations of inorganic elements may be due to the variation in environmental pollution. Our study had limitation of small sample size. Our results suggest that some inorganic elements can participate in the origin of psammoma bodies.
39 The relationship of aluminium and silver to neural tube defects; a case control Ramírez-Altamirano Mde J, Fenton-Navarro P, Sivet-Chiñas E, Harp-Iturribarria Fde M, Martínez-Cruz R, Cruz PH, Cruz MM, Pérez-Campos E

Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of neurotoxic inorganic elements in the hair of patients with the diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects. Our initial hypothesis was that neurotoxic inorganic elements were associated with Neural Tube Defects.

Methods: Twenty-three samples of hair from newborns were obtained from the General Hospital, "Aurelio Valdivieso" in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study group included 8 newborn infants with neural tube pathology. The control group was composed of 15 newborns without this pathology. The presence of inorganic elements in the hair samples was determined by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (spectroscopic emission of the plasma).

Findings: THE POPULATION OF NEWBORNS WITH NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS SHOWED SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER VALUES OF THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS THAN THE CONTROL GROUP: Aluminium, Neural Tube Defects 152.77±51.06 µg/g, control group 76.24±27.89 µg/g; Silver, Neural Tube Defects 1.45±0.76, control group 0.25±0.53 µg/g; Potassium, Neural Tube Defects 553.87±77.91 µg/g, control group 341.13±205.90 µg/g. Association was found at 75 percentile between aluminium plus silver, aluminium plus potassium, silver plus potassium, and potassium plus sodium.

Conclusion: IN THE HAIR OF NEWBORNS WITH NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, THE FOLLOWING METALS WERE INCREASED: aluminium, silver. Given the neurotoxicity of the same, and association of Neural Tube Defects with aluminum and silver, one may infer that they may be participating as factors in the development of Neural Tube Defects.

40 Protein C activation peptide inhibits the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and interleukin-8 induced by TNF-α in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells Pina-Canseco Mdel S, Páez-Arenas A, Massó F, Pérez-Campos E, Martínez-Cruz R, Hernández-Cruz P, Majluf-Cruz A, Martínez-Cruz M, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Pérez-Santiago AD, Zenteno E. Activated protein C (APC) is generated from the cleavage of protein C by thrombin coupled to thrombomodulin and, subsequently, is released as protein C activation peptide (papC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of papC on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), activated with 5 ng//mL TNF-α. Flow cytometry showed that papC inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, after activation with TNF-a. Similarly, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 2 and 4 pM papC inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 mRNA in TNF-α-treated HMEC-1. In addition, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) increased in HMEC-1 treated with papC, compared to those without treatment. Furthermore, Jurkat cell adhesion to HMEC-1 induced by TNF-a was significantly inhibited after the addition of papC, compared to HMEC-1 without papC (p = 0.03). Finally, a control peptide analog to papC showed no effect on the expression of ICAM and VCAM on the surface of HMEC-1. In conclusion, our results suggest that papC exerts anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells.
41 Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma Gallegos IB, Pérez-Campos E, Martinez M, Mayoral MÁ, Pérez L, Aguilar S, Zenteno E, Pina Mdel S, Hernández P.

Background: Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors.

Findings: Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

42 Color of meconium and interleukin-6 Silva-Bravo R, Mayoral-Andrade G, Zenteno E, Hernandez P, Martínez-Cruz R, Mayoral LP, Aguilar-Ruiz S, Paz-Pacheco A, Zarate-Aspiros R, López-Bravo M, Roldan-Aragon Y, Pérez-Campos E.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that the color of meconial fluid is associated with inflammatory biomarkers, by determining C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum from the umbilical cord.

Methods: In this prospective study, the authors selected 30 newborns with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF): 14 with green/brown 656 R color and 16 with brown/cinnamon 654 R color, and 20 newborns which showed clear amniotic fluid without MSAF (non-MSAF); all newborns were from mothers without risk factors for neonatal sepsis.

Results: IL-6 concentration from umbilical cord blood, [median of 12.9 pg/mL (interquartile range {IQR} 8.7-31.0)] of MSAF-green/brown 656 R increased significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with IL-6 concentration, [median of 9.2 pg/mL (IQR 7.2-12.2)] of newborns with clear amniotic fluid and without meconium. CRP from MSAF-green/brown 656 R was median of 0.5 mg/mL (IQR 0.0-2.7), and median of 1.0 mg/mL (IQR 0.0-5.5) from clear amniotic fluid, without meconium.

Conclusions: Significant association was found between MSAF-green/brown 656 R and increase in IL-6, with normal CRP values.

43 Glycosylation pattern in the appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism Lopez G, Jmenez S, Martinez R, Pina Mdel S, Gallegos B, Pérez-Campos E, Zenteno E, Hernández P. In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis, adjacent to the head of the epididymis. Glycans can be involved in development of the appendix testis and cryptorchidism. In this work, lectin histochemistry was used to evaluate glycans expression in appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism. Our results showed that lectin from Lens culinaris, Ulex europaeus I., Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia, Glycine max, and Griffonia simplicifolia recognizes epithelial and estromal cells. Not interaction was observed with lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus, while lectin from Dolichus biflorus lectin only recognizes epithelial cells. Our results suggest that O-glycans linked in some glycoproteins represent important elements in appendix testis development.
44 O-glycosylation expression in fibroadenoma Gallegos B, Pérez-Campos E, Martinez R, Leyva P, Martinez M, Hernández R, Pina S, Hernández C, Zenteno E, Hernández P.Prep Fibroadenomas are human benign breast tumors characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stroma cells of the terminal ductal unit. Expression of O-glycans seems to contribute to the proliferation and transformation events. With this in mind, we evaluated the expression of glycans in fibroadenoma tissue through immunohistochemistry with antibodies against mucin epitopes (Anti CA15-3 and MUC1), as well as with lectins specific for glycans linked to proteins or lipids, and we compared findings with healthy breast specimens. Our results show positive expression of CA15-3 and MUC1 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in duct and stroma cells, whereas, in normal samples, staining was observed in duct cells. The lectin from Glycine max recognized equally well duct and stroma cells; this was the only lectin showing co-localization with anti-CA15-3 in healthy and tumor tissues. Dolichos biflorus, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Griffonia simplicifolia lectins recognized duct cells in control healthy tissues as well as in fibroadenoma tissue. The lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus recognized only duct cells in control samples, whereas, in fibroadenoma tissue, it recognized duct and some stromal cells, suggesting that O-glycans-type mucin linked to proteins and mucin participate in the development of fibroadenomas.
45 [Platelet abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus] Matadamas-Zárate C, Hernández-Jerónimo J, Pérez-Campos E, Majluf-Cruz A. Diabetes mellitus is a problem of health worldwide being vascular complications the main causes of morbidity and mortality in this population. Diabetics have a fast atherothrombotic evolution which is worse than that observed for other clinical entities; however, hyperglycemia itself may not totally explain the ischemic complications observed in these patients. Most ischemic arterial events are precipitated by plaque rupture, platelet activation, and thrombosis. Several abnormalities in the blood coagulation system have been described associated to diabetes mellitus, all of them predisposing to thrombosis: endothelial cell dysfunction, platelet hyperreactivity, thrombin generation and hypofibrinolysis. Platelets play a key role in diabetic atherothrombosis due to platelet hypersensitivity to physiological agonists, low response to therapeutical antiplatelet agents, platelet hyperreactivity in sites of endothelial cell damage, hyperaggregability, resistance to the inhibitory effects of the insulin, and low endothelial production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide. All these phenomena have been associated to either a toxic microenvironment due to hyperglycemia or to intrinsic platelet abnormalities. Based on all these facts, it is proposed that platelets may be another target for the negative effects of insulin-resistance state. Because platelets are crucial in the atherosclerotic process and in the genesis of the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus, this review analyses the platelet abnormalities observed in this metabolic disease.
46 Lectin activity of the coagulation factor VIII/von Willebrand complex Santizo F, Zenteno E, Pina-Canseco S, Hernandez-Cruz P, Cruz MM, Mayoral LP, Pérez-Campos E, Martínez-Cruz R. The human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is essential in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and circulates mainly as a non-covalently bound complex with the von Willebrand factor (VWF). This complex (FVIII/VWF) protects FVIII from degradation and cellular uptake, although no biological role has been identified yet for this complex. The FVIII/VWF complex was purified from a healthy donor's plasma by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose 4B-Concanavalin A column and was used to determine its capability to interact with erythrocytes and platelets. The purified FVIII/VWF complex at 6.0 and 12 microg/ml agglutinates rabbit and bovine erythrocytes, and showed negative agglutination with erythrocytes from other species including human ABO. Treatment of erythrocytes with Clostridium perfringens sialidase or trypsin increased four-fold the activity toward rabbit erythrocytes and positive agglutination for human A and B erythrocytes, suggesting the presence of FVIII/VWF-cryptic receptors in these erythrocytes. Goat, pig, or human O erythrocytes were not agglutinated even after enzymatic treatment. Fucose or N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), at 10 mM, inhibited agglutinating activity of the complex with rabbit, human A and B erythrocytes, whereas galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamine, even at 200 mM, showed no effect on the complex activity. The FVIII/VWF complex, at 1.5 microg/200,000 platelets, significantly decreased platelet aggregation (p < 0.001) when compared with the effect of platelet-rich plasma; this effect was inhibited with 15 mM GlcNAc or fucose. ELISA assays on FVIII/VWF coated polystyrene plates confirmed specific binding to fucose- or biotinylated GlcNAc-dextran derivatives. We therefore propose that the FVIII/VWF complex possesses lectin activity.
47 Potential use of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lectin for diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Pérez-Campos-Mayoral L, Ruiz-Argüelles A, Pérez-Romano B, Zenteno E, Hernández-Cruz P, Martínez-Cruz R, Martínez-Cruz M, Pina-Canseco S, Pérez-Campos E. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of cancer in children. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins from plants or animals that recognize oligossacharides on the cell surface and have been used to characterize the structural changes of oligosaccharides in leukemias. In this study, we used the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium (M. rosenbergii), specific for acetyl groups in sialylated glycans, because increased sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been identified in lymphoblastic leukemias. We compared the specificity of the M. rosenbergii lectin for lymphoblastic leukemias with the specificities of the lectins from Triticum vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Arachis hipogaea, and Phytolacca americana. By morphologic and phenotype characterization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we identified four types of leukemias from 106 leukemia patients: 11 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 61 cases of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 24 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 10 cases of acute biphenotypic leukemia. As determined by cytofluorometric assays, nine of the eleven cases with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (8 +/- 3 years old) were specifically identified with the lectin from M. rosenbergii. In contrast, only six cases of B-cell leukemia, one case of myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 cases of biphenotypic leukemia were identified with this M. rosenbergii lectin. The other lectins tested showed no capacity to differentiate, in a significant manner, any of the four types of leukemias tested. Thus, the lectin from M. rosenbergii could be considered a useful tool for the diagnosis and study of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
48 Interaction of the protein C activation peptide with platelets Martínez-Cruz R, Canseco Mdel S, Lopez-Martínez J, Cruz PA, Pérez-Campos E, Cruz MM, Alva FC, Majluf-Cruz A, Zenteno E, Ruiz-Argüelles A. The peptide NH(2)-DTEDQEDQVDPR-COOH is released during activation of protein C zymogen. We measured the effect of a synthetic peptide with an amino acid sequence similar to that of the natural peptide on platelets from healthy individuals using platelet aggregometry. We found that this synthetic peptide inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin; furthermore, it diminishes mobilization of intraplatelet calcium. Molecular docking showed weak interaction between the synthetic peptide and thrombin. Our findings suggest that this synthetic peptide may interact with a receptor located on the platelet cell membrane.
49 Use of amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to differentiate cervical dysplasia (CIN) Santaella-Verdejo A, Gallegos B, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández P, Zenteno E. Alterations in O-glycosylation of proteins in cell surfaces can originate disorder in cellular function, as well as in cell transformation and tumoral differentiation. In this work, we investigate changes in O-glycosylation in cervical intraepithelial dysplasia (CIN) at different stages of differentiation (CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III) using lectins specific for O-glycosidically linked glycans. Twenty cases with CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III dysplasias each, and 20 normal cases were studied by lectin histochemistry and evaluated under optical microscopy. The lectins from Glycine max and Griffonia simplicifolia showed no differences in their recognition pattern among the different CIN stages and normal tissue. Dolichos Biflorus lectin recognized CIN I dysplasia. Lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus showed increased reactivity in the presence of CIN II dysplasia, compared with CIN I and CIN III. These results suggest that subtle modifications in the O-glycosylation pattern could be considered in diagnosis or prognosis of cervical precancerous stages.
50 Role of concanavalin A lectin in recognition of pterygium remnant after surgical excision: preliminary results of a prospective study Díaz-González JA, Mayoral-Chávez MA, Bohórquez PL, de la Torre Mdel P, Hernández-Cruz P, Martínez-Cruz R, Pérez-Campos E.

Background: Pterygium is one of the most common conjunctival diseases among ophthalmic pathologies. The frequency of recurrences is high, either after surgical treatment or after treatment combined with mitomycin C or beta-radiation therapy.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether concanavalin A (ConA) lectin bound to the pterygial surface can be used to detect recurrence or remnants of pterygium after surgical excision.

Materials and methods: This was a prospective study on 20 patients with pterygium, divided in five stages, pre-surgery, early post-surgery (24h), late post-surgery (seven days), very late post-surgery (four weeks) and two months after the procedure. A drop of fluorescein-marked Con A (35 microg/mL) was instilled in the lower conjunctival eyelid sac and the eye was exposed to the light of a Wood's lamp for an average of five seconds.

Results: Out of the 20 patients, eight patients were found to have fluorescent stretch marks over the scar corresponding to residual pterygial tissue at four weeks; two months after the procedure of re-surgery we observed no fluorescent remnants. All residual pterygia were confirmed through histochemistry studies.

Conclusion: It was possible to detect remnants of pterygium in postoperative patients and recurrences in early pre-clinical stages through the visualization of fluorescent ConA bound to the pterygial surface.

# Nombre Autores Descripcion Enlace
51 [Inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy study of trace elements in gallstones from different regions of Oaxaca State] Martínez-Luna MS, Guzmán-Ortiz D, Herrera-Colmenares E, Flores Samaniego B, Martínez-Cruz R, Pérez-Campos E.
52 [Prevalence of non-alcoholic esteatohepatitis in adults with metabolic syndrome in Oaxaca] Alvarez-Martínez HE, Pérez-Campos E, Leyva-Bohórquez P.Gac Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that occurs in patients with no significant alcohol consumption, characterized for macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate and various grades of fibrosis and, in some cases, Mallory bodies. The prevalence of this disease is unknown; recent studies indicate that in the general population, incidence is about 3%, although the rates are higher in some subpopulations as are obesity and diabetes mellitus. The goal of this work was to determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in one sample of patients with the metabolic syndrome, patients at "Presidente Juárez" Regional Hospital. It was a cross-sectional and descriptive study in which, by means of random selection a sample of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, alone or in combination was chosen. We carried out a clinical and laboratory evaluation, selecting those patients with persistent elevation of aminotransferases for whom additional studies were made, in order to exclude other causes of enzyme abnormality. Five patients were selected for percutaneous liver biopsy, all they had NASH. The prevalence of NASH was 4.54%. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of these patients will be discussed in the article.
53 [Pathogenic molecular mechanisms in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] Alvarez-Martínez HE, Montaño-Estrada LF, Hernández-Cruz P, Pérez-Campos E. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic disease that occurs in persons without significative consumption of alcohol, characterized by macrovesicular steatosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, and diverse degrees of fibrosis. It can progress to cirrhosis and its evolution to hepatocellular carcinoma has been described. It principally occurs in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, and is at present considered a manifestation of metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance. In pathogenesis, diverse factors, fundamentally insulin resistance as a mechanism that determines hepatic steatosis, have been described. Later, alteration of signalling cascades, oxidative stress, and other mechanisms occur that lead to inflammation, necrosis, and finally to hepatic fibrosis, the details of which will be described in this review.
54 [Causality in medicine] Alvarez-Martínez H, Pérez-Campos E. The concept of causality is a part of every day life because man has always searched for the why of things as a way of dealing with and adapting to the world. In medicine, one of the central aims of study is identification of the factors or agents that cause disease with the intention of establishing treatments and especially, to apply preventive strategies. In this work, we conducted a brief review of the philosophical positions on causality, its biological models, as well as the tools used in clinical epidemiology to evaluate causal associations.
55 [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women] Cárdenas Morales BE, Pérez Campos E, Gatica Valdez N.

Background: With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause.

Objectives: To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period.

Material and methods: A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed.

Results: We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD).

Conclusions: Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

56 [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women]

Background: With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause.

Objectives: To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period.

Material and methods: A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed.

Results: We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD).

Conclusions: Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

57 Analysis of the lectins from teosinte (Zea diploperennis) and maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles Martínez-Cruz M, Pérez-Campos E, Zenteno E, Córdoba F. To identify molecular evidence of the common origin of maize and teosinte, a lectin from teosinte coleoptile (TCL) was purified, through affinity chromatography on a lactosyl-Sepharose column, and some of the physicochemical parameters were compared with those from the maize coleoptile lectin (CCL). TCL is a 92 kDa glycoprotein constituted mainly by aspartic, glutamic, glycine, leucine, and lysine residues; in minor proportion, methionine and cysteine were also found. The glycannic portion of the lectin, which corresponds to 10% w/w, is composed by Gal, Man, and GlcNAc. CCL is an 88.7 kDa glycoprotein that contains 12% sugars by weight; its sugar and amino acid compositions are similar to those of TCL. TCL is formed by two isoforms identified through acidic electrophoresis, whereas CCL is constituted by a single molecular form. The NH(2) termini of both TCL isoforms are blocked, but their amino acid sequences determined from tryptic peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) indicated that TCL isoforms have no homology with other mono- or dicotyledonous lectins, including CCL. TCL, just as CCL, showed hemagglutinating activity toward animal erythrocytes, including human A, B, and O. Hapten inhibition assays indicated that although TCL shows broader sugar specificity than CCL, it recognizes Gal in O- and N-glycosidically linked glycans. Both lectins are equally well recognized by antibodies against TCL.
58 [A new thrombophilia risk factor: the increase of plasma factor VIII] Hernández-Jerónimo J, Pérez-Campos E, Matadamas C, Majluf-Cruz A. Factor VIII (FVIII) is key component of the fluid phase of the blood coagulation system. Recent evidence suggests a direct relationship between high plasma levels of FVIII and an increased risk for arterial and venous thrombosis. Thus material reviews the most important clinical and epidemiological evidence about this prothrombotic association. Main function of FVIII is to activate FX functioning as a cofactor for activated FIX in the presence of phospholipids and calcium. Since its deficiency has been historically associated with a hemorrhagic disease (namely hemophilia A), it was never studied its role in thrombosis. In order to explain the association FVIII and thrombosis, defects in its synthesis that increase its plasma concentration as well as postranslational modifications that allow a higher activity, have been proposed. Since 1977 it was suggested that increased plasma concentrations of FVIII and thrombosis may be associated. Shortly after, several other studies confirmed this association. Indeed, patients with stroke of acute myocardial infarction having high plasma levels of FVIII have a shorter survival. On the other hand, deep venous thrombosis is more frequent in patients with high plasma levels of FVIII. This rise in plasma FVIII concentration is also associated with recurrent venous thrombosis. The increment of plasma FVIII concentration is not due to an acute phase reaction. Plasma concentrations of FVIII above 100-150 IU/dL increase 3-fold the risk of thrombosis while concentrations above 150 IU/dL increase the the same risk 6-fold. While it is established the real importance of FVIII as a cause of thrombosis, every patient at risk of thrombosis must have a quantification of this factor. Evaluation of plasma FVIII concentration must be performed in patients with suspected thrombophilia since there is evidence that shows that high plasma FVIII levels is an independent thrombophilic risk factor. There are not effective therapeutic interventions able to normalize the high concentrations of FVIII. Therefore, appropriate prophylaxis during high thrombosis risk clinical episodes is the best alternative for the patient.
59 [Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] Alvarez-Martínez H, Pérez-Campos E. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that occurs in patients with no significant alcohol consumption; it is not histologically different from alcoholic hepatitis because it presents macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, and various stages of fibrosis in addition Mallory bodies in some patients. Some authors have even described NASH as a benign disease; however, it is presently considered a potentially serious disease that may evolve into liver cirrhosis and probably, liver cancer. It is more often related to female sex, obesity, and dyslipidemia, although it may be present in other population groups and associated with other factors. Its origin may be multifactorial, including insulin resistance, protein glycation, oxidative stress, and others. The disease may be asymptomatic and found in routine physical exams when the patient shows increased aminotransferases with no other explanation. At present the only specific diagnosis procedure is liver biopsy. The sole available current treatment is body weight control, normalizing glucose and lipid blood levels, as well as the administration of some medication, as illustrated in the subsequent article.
60 Effect of plant lectins on Ustilago maydis in vitro Santiago AP, Saavedra E, Pérez Campos E, Córdoba F. Ustilago maydis is an edible parasitic basidiomycete, which specifically infects corn (Zea mays) and teocintle (Z. diploperennis). To characterise the interaction between the basidiomycete and its host organism, we tested the effect of plant lectins with well-known sugar specificity on the growth and germination of U. maydis spores. Lectins specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, such as those from Dolichos biflorus and Phaseolus lunatus, and the wheatgerm agglutinin specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibited spore germination, but were ineffective in modifying U. maydis cell growth. The galactose-specific lectin from the corn coleoptyle inhibited both germination and cell growth, while the lectin concanavalin A (mannose/glucose specific) activated spore germination and growth. Our results suggest that specific saccharide-containing receptors participate in regulating the growth and maturation of U. maydis spores.
61 Effects of concanavalin A on protein-C activity Concanavalin A interacts specifically with the oligosaccharides from protein-C and modifies its anticoagulant activity. The lectin activates the protein-C activity in a dose dependent manner as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Concanavalin A at low concentration (0.1 to 2 microg/mL) induces an increase on the catalytic activity of protein-C; at higher concentrations (5 to 20 microg/mL), the catalytic activity returns to the baseline. The effect of concanavalin A was prevented by incubating the protein-C with alpha-methyl-mannoside or by treating the purified protein-C with alpha-mannosidase; furthermore, cleavage of mannosidic residues diminishes its catalytic activity. Our results indicate that the oligomannosidic portion of protein-C participates in the regulation of the catalytic activity of this protein.
62 [Recent advances in thrombophilia] Córdoba Alva F, Pérez Campos E.
63 Purification of protein C a natural anticoagulant, from human plasma by affinity chromatography with Convanavalin A Pérez-Campos E, Córdoba F, Pérez-Ortega E, Martínez M, Zenteno E.Prep We have developed a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive method to purify protein C from plasma using Concanavalin A conjugated to Sepharose. With this method we have obtained protein C purified to homogeneity, as measured in polyacrylamide gels. We discuss each of the steps of our method and give the results of the purification.
64 Corrigendum to "Molecules in seminal plasma related to platelets in preeclampsia" [Med. Hypotheses 93 (2016) 27-29] Iván Antonio García-Montalvo, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Laura Perez-Campos Mayoral, Socorro Pina Canseco, Ruth Martinez Cruz, Margarito Martínez-Cruz, Edgar Zenteno, Eduardo Perez-Campos Mayoral, Itandehui Gallegos Velasco, Maria Teresa Hernandez-Huerta, Diana Matias-Perez, Eduardo Pérez-Campos.
65 Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils Irma Leticia Bazán-Salinas, Diana Matías-Pérez, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Iván Antonio García-Montalvo The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.
66 Antigen TF and galectin-3 expression in breast carcinoma. Belem Gallegos-Velasco, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Sergio Aguilar-Ruiz, Laura Pérez-Campos, Carlos Solórzano-Mata, Yobana Pérez-Cervera, Edgar Zenteno And Pedro Hernández-Cruz.
67 Púrpura trombocitopénica trombótica asociada a cáncer de mama. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura. Víctor Cruz-Hernández, Soyla Socorro-López, Yazmín Santos-Blas, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Diego A. Cruz-Acevedo
68 Púrpura trombocitopénica trombótica resistente; tratamiento con rituximab. Víctor Cruz-Hernández, Samuel León-Tapia, Yazmin Santos-Blas, Ana Acevedo-Cruz, Eduardo Pérez- Campos
69 Human platelets express Toll-like receptor 3 and respond to poly I:C. Anabel AS, Eduardo PC, Pedro Antonio HC, Carlos SM, Juana NM, Honorio TA, Nicolás VS,Sergio Roberto AR. Platelets functions in hemostasis have been widely studied. Currently, growing evidence shows that platelets have also a role in the immune innate response. Recently, protein expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR's) 2, 4, 7, 8, and 9, and the presence of TLRs 1 and 6 mRNA in human platelets was described. Up to now the functionality of TLR-2, 4 and 9 in human platelets has been demonstrated. Due to the relevance of TLRs functions to PAMPS (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) recognizing, we evaluated the presence of TLR3 in human platelets founding low percentages of platelets expressing surface or intracellular TLR3 protein. The activation with thrombin induced an increase in the percentage of platelets expressing surface TLR3 and higher levels of TLR3 expression in the whole population. Human platelets responded to poly I:C by increasing [Ca(2+)]i, the percentages of cells expressing TLR4 and CD62P, and by releasing CXCL4 and IL-1β in comparison to unstimulated platelets. These results demonstrate that human platelets express TLR3 and are capable of responding to poly I:C, suggesting that these cells might influence the immune innate response when detecting viral dsRNA.
70 Algoritmo en el estudio de infecciones por HIV. Pérez Ortega E, Pérez Campos E. Revista Mexicana De Patología Clínica. 1988;35 (1), 1-14.
71 In vitro antiparasitic activity of new thiosemicarbazones in strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Adriana Moreno-Rodríguez, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Juan Luis Bautista, Francisco Hernández-Luis, Hugo Torrens, Yolanda Guevara-Gómez, Socorro Pina-Canseco, Martha Bucio Torres, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo, Cesar Mendoza Martinez, Eduardo Pérez-Campos. In this study thiosemicarbazones derivatives of 5-[(trifluoromethyl)phenylthio]-2-furaldehyde were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their efficiency in challenging the growth of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. A number of compounds were synthesized from 5-bromo-2-furfuraldehyde using nucleophilic aromatic substitution, with a series of trifluoromethyl thiolates, followed by condensation reactions with thiosemicarbazide. Their molecular structures were determined by 1H, 13C and 19F NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. When tested with T. cruzi, they showed a stronger reaction, similar to nifurtimox and benznidazole, with the 5-[nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyltio]-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (compound 4) showing the highest antiparasitic activity. This improved activity may be explained due to the nitro group present in the molecule, which potentiates its activity. The thiosemicarbazone derivatives in this study showed no apoptosis in platelets or monocytes, nor did they induce platelet activation. The trypanocidal activity of these substances represents a good starting point for a medicinal chemistry program aimed at therapy for Chagas' disease.
72 El consumo de aceites vegetales y la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Bazán-Salinas Irma Leticia, Matías-Pérez Diana, De Gyves-Escobar Enrique, Rivera-Santiago Jorge, Pérez-Campos Eduardo, García-Montalvo Iván Antonio.
73 Recurrent Panic Attack and Ubiquinone Treatment: A Case Report. Rodal-Canales FJ , Guzmán A, Perez-Campos-Mayoral L, Mayoral-Andrade G, Perez-Campos-Mayoral E, Perez-Campos E.
74 Lectins in human pathogenic fungi. Belém Gallegos, Ruth Martínez, Laura Pérez, María Del Socorro Pina, Eduardo Perez, Pedro Hernández. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).
75 Psychopathy - The Polygrapher's Viewpoint Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. Mayoral Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Martínez Eric, Cruz Margarito Martínez1, Rubio Manuel Sánchez, Hernández Pedro, Cruz Ruth Martínez, Mayoral Laura Perez-Campos, Velasco Itandehui Gallegos, Pérez-Campos Eduardo.
# Nombre Autores Descripcion Enlace
76 Infección humana asintomática por contacto con perros. Un caso de ehrlichiosis humana. Ángela Beatriz Silva, Socorro Pina Canseco, María del Pilar Gabriel de la Torre, Alejandro Mayoral Silva, Miguel Ángel Mayoral, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Jael LopezMartínez, y Eduardo Pérez-Campos.
77 Principales razones de extracción de dientes permanentes en una muestra de adultos mexicanos. Medina Solís Carlo Eduardo, Pontigo Loyola América Patricia, Pérez Campos Eduardo, Hernández Cruz Pedro, De la Rosa Santillana Rubén, Navarete Hernández José de Jesús, Maupomé Cervantes Gerardo.

Resumen

Objetivo: Identificar las razones principales para extracción dental en pacientes adultos que acuden a clínicas dentales universitarias. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 331 sujetos de entre 18 y 85 años de edad (45.37 ± 13.85) que acudieron a las clínicas dentales de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo entre enero y diciembre de 2009. Los datos sobre edad, sexo, diente y motivo para la extracción (clasificación de Kay & Blinkhorn, 1986) se analizaron mediante pruebas no paramétricas en STATA 9.0. Resultados: En total se realizaron 779 extracciones. La mayoría de las personas que requirieron el servicio fueron mujeres (66.8%). La principal razón fue por caries dental (43.1%; n = 323), seguida de enfermedad periodontal (27.9%; n = 209) y razones protésicas (21.51%, n = 161). En promedio se realizaron más extracciones entre los pacientes de 45 a 85 años que entre los menores de 45 años (p < 0.01). No se observaron diferencias significativas del motivo de extracción por sexo (p > 0.05). Existieron diferencias (p < 0.001) respecto al motivo de extracción en cuanto a edad (la extracción por enfermedad periodontal se incrementó conforme la edad); pacientes con visita única vs. aquéllos con visitas múltiples (caries en pacientes presentándose por única vez vs. enfermedad periodontal en aquéllos con visitas múltiples). Por tipo de diente: superiores, posteriores y molares se extrajeron más por caries mientras que inferiores, anteriores e incisivos fueron extraídos más frecuentemente por enfermedad periodontal. Conclusiones: La caries dental fue la razón más común para la extracción de dientes, seguida por enfermedad periodontal. Se encontraron diferencias del motivo de las extracciones por características del paciente y del tipo de diente.
78 Association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older: a multivariate analysis of a population-based survey. Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, Avila-Burgos L, Kowolik MJ, Maupomé G. J Periodontol.

Background: The possible association between oral infection and chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied intensively. The present study is designed to determine the strength of association between edentulism and angina pectoris in Mexican adults aged 35 years and older.

Methods: Using the tools and sampling strategies of the World Health Survey of the World Health Organization, cross-sectional data were collected in Mexico in the National Performance Assessment Survey (probabilistic, multistage, and cluster sampling). Dental information was available for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico. Angina and edentulism are self-reported in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using binary logistic regression adjusting for complex samples.

Results: A total of 13,966 participants, representing a population of 29,853,607 individuals, were included. Of the complete study population, 3,052,263 (10.2%) were completely toothless, and 673,810 (2.3%) were diagnosed with angina pectoris. After adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, body mass index, and sex, the effect of edentulism on angina was modified by age (interaction), being more marked in the younger age group (odds ratio [OR] = exp(2.5597) =12.93) than in the older individuals surveyed (OR = exp(2.5597 + (-0.0334)) =12.51). Additionally, low physical activity (OR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03 to 2.22) and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.90) were more likely to be associated with angina pectoris.

Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study, conducted in a representative sample of Mexican adults, suggest that an association exists between edentulism and angina pectoris. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this association.

79 Why not change classical treatments for glioblastoma in elderly patients? Eduardo Perez-Campos, Javier Arjona Perez, Laura Perez-Campos Mayoral, Itandehui Gallegos Velasco, Pedro Hernandez Cruz, Primitivo Gonzalez Olivera. In consideration of the poor results obtained with conventional treatments, a review of alternative treatments for elderly patients with glioblastoma was researched in this study. The proposal considers the elimination of human cytomegalovirus, modifying the immune response, arresting growths, blocking some signaling pathways, and modulating the effects of oxygen reactive species.
80 El papel de la galectina-3 en el desarrollo del cáncer de mama. Belen Gallegos, Blanca Cuevas, Eduardo Perez Campos, Rocio Coutiño, Pedro Hernandez Cruz.

RESUMEN

El cáncer de mama es la segunda causa de muerte de mujeres en el mundo, sin embargo si es diagnosticado oportunamente puede ser curado. Recientemente se ha observado que cambios en la estructura de los oligosacáridos de las proteínas de membrana, se relacionan con los procesos de transformación y proliferación celular, los cuales pueden originar el cáncer de mama, además, la presencia de receptores para estos carbohidratos, puede potencializar la capacidad metastásica del tumor. En esta revisión se presenta una visión general de los marcadores glicosilados y de sus receptores, especialmente la galectina-3, que se ha asociado al cáncer de mama.

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second cause of death of women in the world and when it is diagnosed opportunely can be cured. Recently it has been observed that changes in the oligosaccharides structures of membrane proteins are related to the transfor-mation processes and cellular proliferation, in addition, the presence of receptor for these carbohydrates, can potentialise the metastatic capacity of the tumor. In this revision a general overview of the glycosylated markers and their receptors, espe-cially galectin-3 that, has been associated to the breast cancer.

81 Caries dental y enfermedad periodontal: principales razones para extracción de dientes permanentes en mexicanos de 18 años y más. Medina-Solís CE, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Pérez-Campos E, Hernández-Cruz P, De la Rosa Santillana R, Navarrete-Hernandez JJ,Maupomé G.

Resumen

Objetivo: Identificar las razones principales para extracción dental en pacientes adultos que acuden a clínicas dentales universitarias. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 331 sujetos de entre 18 y 85 años de edad (45.37 ± 13.85) que acudieron a las clínicas dentales de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo entre enero y diciembre de 2009. Los datos sobre edad, sexo, diente y motivo para la extracción (clasificación de Kay & Blinkhorn, 1986) se analizaron mediante pruebas no paramétricas en STATA 9.0.

Resultados: En total se realizaron 779 extracciones. La mayoría de las personas que requirieron el servicio fueron mujeres (66.8%). La principal razón fue por caries dental (43.1%; n = 323), seguida de enfermedad periodontal (27.9%; n = 209) y razones protésicas (21.51%, n = 161). En promedio se realizaron más extracciones entre los pacientes de 45 a 85 años que entre los menores de 45 años (p < 0.01). No se observaron diferencias significativas del motivo de extracción por sexo (p > 0.05). Existieron diferencias (p < 0.001) respecto al motivo de extracción en cuanto a edad (la extracción por enfermedad periodontal se incrementó conforme la edad); pacientes con visita única vs. aquéllos con visitas múltiples (caries en pacientes presentándose por única vez vs. enfermedad periodontal en aquéllos con visitas múltiples). Por tipo de diente: superiores, posteriores y molares se extrajeron más por caries mientras que inferiores, anteriores e incisivos fueron extraídos más frecuentemente por enfermedad periodontal.

Conclusiones: La caries dental fue la razón más común para la extracción de dientes, seguida por enfermedad periodontal. Se encontraron diferencias del motivo de las extracciones por características del paciente y del tipo de diente.

82 Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma Gallegos Belem Itandehui, Pérez-Campos Eduardo, Martinez Margarito, Mayoral Ángel Miguel, Pérez Laura, Aguilar Sergio, Zenteno Edgar, Pina del Maria, Hernández Pedro, BMC Research Notes.

Background: Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors.

Findings: Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

83 Protein C activation peptide inhibits the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and interleukin-8 induced by TNF-? in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Pina-Canseco Mdel S, Páez-Arenas A, Massó F, Pérez-Campos E, Martínez-Cruz R, Hernández-Cruz P, Majluf-Cruz A, Martínez-Cruz M, Pérez-Campos Mayoral L, Pérez-Santiago AD, Zenteno E. Activated protein C (APC) is generated from the cleavage of protein C by thrombin coupled to thrombomodulin and, subsequently, is released as protein C activation peptide (papC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of papC on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), activated with 5 ng//mL TNF-α. Flow cytometry showed that papC inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, after activation with TNF-a. Similarly, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 2 and 4 pM papC inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 mRNA in TNF-α-treated HMEC-1. In addition, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) increased in HMEC-1 treated with papC, compared to those without treatment. Furthermore, Jurkat cell adhesion to HMEC-1 induced by TNF-a was significantly inhibited after the addition of papC, compared to HMEC-1 without papC (p = 0.03). Finally, a control peptide analog to papC showed no effect on the expression of ICAM and VCAM on the surface of HMEC-1. In conclusion, our results suggest that papC exerts anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells.
84 The Relationship of Aluminium and Silver to Neural Tube Defects; A Case Control. Ramírez-Altamirano, M., Fenton-Navarro, P., Sivet-Chiñas, E., Harp-Iturribarria, F., Martínez-Cruz, R., Hernández Cruz, P., Martínez Cruz, M., Pérez-Campos, E.
85 A study on inorganic elements in psammomas from ovarian & thyroid cancer. Pedro S Olivera Merlin, Paulina del C. Leyva Bohorquez, Ruth Martínez-Cruz, Socorro Pina Canseco, Pedro Hernandez, Margarito Martínez-Cruz, Manuel Sánchez Rubio, Lucía Martínez Martínez, Eduardo Pérez-Campos. Background & objectives: Concentric lamellar calcifications known as psammoma bodies (PB) are found in benign and malignant tumours. Whether or not the inorganic element concentrations in psammomas are similar to serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary and thyroid papillary cancer tissues has not yet been ascertained. We undertook this retrospective study to establish if there is any difference in the concentrations of inorganic ions found in psammomas in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, and those found in thyroid papillary cancer tissue. Methods: PB samples from patients with adenocarcinoma of the ovary (n = 10) and with thyroid papillary cancer (n = 10) were analyzed through inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP). Results: There were no significant differences in the concentrations of inorganic elements in PB from thyroid papillary cancer than in those PB from ovarian cancer. Interpretation & conclusions: Differences in the concentrations of inorganic elements may be due to the variation in environmental pollution. Our study had limitation of small sample size. Our results suggest that some inorganic elements can participate in the origin of psammoma bodies.
86 Color of meconium and interleukin-6 Silva-Bravo R, Mayoral-Andrade G, Zenteno E, Hernandez P, Martínez-Cruz R, Mayoral LP, Aguilar-Ruiz S, Paz-Pacheco A, Zarate-Aspiros R, López-Bravo M, Roldan-Aragon Y, Pérez-Campos E.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that the color of meconial fluid is associated with inflammatory biomarkers, by determining C-reactive protein (CRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum from the umbilical cord.

Methods: In this prospective study, the authors selected 30 newborns with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF): 14 with green/brown 656 R color and 16 with brown/cinnamon 654 R color, and 20 newborns which showed clear amniotic fluid without MSAF (non-MSAF); all newborns were from mothers without risk factors for neonatal sepsis.

Results: IL-6 concentration from umbilical cord blood, [median of 12.9 pg/mL (interquartile range {IQR} 8.7-31.0)] of MSAF-green/brown 656 R increased significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with IL-6 concentration, [median of 9.2 pg/mL (IQR 7.2-12.2)] of newborns with clear amniotic fluid and without meconium. CRP from MSAF-green/brown 656 R was median of 0.5 mg/mL (IQR 0.0-2.7), and median of 1.0 mg/mL (IQR 0.0-5.5) from clear amniotic fluid, without meconium.

Conclusions: Significant association was found between MSAF-green/brown 656 R and increase in IL-6, with normal CRP values.

87 Glycosylation pattern in the appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism Lopez G, Jmenez S, Martinez R, Pina Mdel S, Gallegos B, Pérez-Campos E, Zenteno E, Hernández P. In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis, adjacent to the head of the epididymis. Glycans can be involved in development of the appendix testis and cryptorchidism. In this work, lectin histochemistry was used to evaluate glycans expression in appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism. Our results showed that lectin from Lens culinaris, Ulex europaeus I., Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia, Glycine max, and Griffonia simplicifolia recognizes epithelial and estromal cells. Not interaction was observed with lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus, while lectin from Dolichus biflorus lectin only recognizes epithelial cells. Our results suggest that O-glycans linked in some glycoproteins represent important elements in appendix testis development.
88 Effects of music therapy on depression compared with psychotherapy. Sergio Castillo-Pérez, Virginia Gómez-Pérez, Minerva Calvillo Velasco, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Miguel-Angel Mayoral. This paper reports a study testing the effects of music on depression and compares them with the effects of psychotherapy. There are mainly three conventional treatments for depression: psychotherapy, pharmaceutical treatments, and electroconvulsive therapy. Because conventional treatment has proven to be poorly successful, new means of treatment must be found that might improve depression when used together with other therapies. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed with a convenience sample of 79 patients aged 25–60 years with low- and medium-grade depression. The Zung Depression Scale was employed for selection purposes. Patients were randomly assigned to the music-therapy group (classical and baroque music) (n = 41), or the psychotherapy group based on conductive-behavioral therapy (n = 38). The music therapy was applied for 50 min a day, every day, for eight weeks. At the end, the music-therapy group had less depressive symptoms than the psychotherapy group, and this was proven to be statistically significant with the Friedman test. We propose that patients with low- and medium-grade depression can use music to enhance the effects of psychological support.
89 O-glycosylation expression in fibroadenoma Gallegos B, Pérez-Campos E, Martinez R, Leyva P, Martinez M, Hernández R, Pina S, Hernández C, Zenteno E, Hernández P. Fibroadenomas are human benign breast tumors characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stroma cells of the terminal ductal unit. Expression of O-glycans seems to contribute to the proliferation and transformation events. With this in mind, we evaluated the expression of glycans in fibroadenoma tissue through immunohistochemistry with antibodies against mucin epitopes (Anti CA15-3 and MUC1), as well as with lectins specific for glycans linked to proteins or lipids, and we compared findings with healthy breast specimens. Our results show positive expression of CA15-3 and MUC1 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in duct and stroma cells, whereas, in normal samples, staining was observed in duct cells. The lectin from Glycine max recognized equally well duct and stroma cells; this was the only lectin showing co-localization with anti-CA15-3 in healthy and tumor tissues. Dolichos biflorus, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Griffonia simplicifolia lectins recognized duct cells in control healthy tissues as well as in fibroadenoma tissue. The lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus recognized only duct cells in control samples, whereas, in fibroadenoma tissue, it recognized duct and some stromal cells, suggesting that O-glycans-type mucin linked to proteins and mucin participate in the development of fibroadenomas.
90 [Platelet abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus] Matadamas-Zárate C, Hernández-Jerónimo J, Pérez-Campos E, Majluf-Cruz A. Diabetes mellitus is a problem of health worldwide being vascular complications the main causes of morbidity and mortality in this population. Diabetics have a fast atherothrombotic evolution which is worse than that observed for other clinical entities; however, hyperglycemia itself may not totally explain the ischemic complications observed in these patients. Most ischemic arterial events are precipitated by plaque rupture, platelet activation, and thrombosis. Several abnormalities in the blood coagulation system have been described associated to diabetes mellitus, all of them predisposing to thrombosis: endothelial cell dysfunction, platelet hyperreactivity, thrombin generation and hypofibrinolysis. Platelets play a key role in diabetic atherothrombosis due to platelet hypersensitivity to physiological agonists, low response to therapeutical antiplatelet agents, platelet hyperreactivity in sites of endothelial cell damage, hyperaggregability, resistance to the inhibitory effects of the insulin, and low endothelial production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide. All these phenomena have been associated to either a toxic microenvironment due to hyperglycemia or to intrinsic platelet abnormalities. Based on all these facts, it is proposed that platelets may be another target for the negative effects of insulin-resistance state. Because platelets are crucial in the atherosclerotic process and in the genesis of the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus, this review analyses the platelet abnormalities observed in this metabolic disease.
91 Lectin activity of the coagulation factor VIII/von Willebrand complex Santizo F, Zenteno E, Pina-Canseco S, Hernandez-Cruz P, Cruz MM, Mayoral LP, Pérez-Campos E, Martínez-Cruz R.Tohoku J Exp Med. The human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is essential in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and circulates mainly as a non-covalently bound complex with the von Willebrand factor (VWF). This complex (FVIII/VWF) protects FVIII from degradation and cellular uptake, although no biological role has been identified yet for this complex. The FVIII/VWF complex was purified from a healthy donor's plasma by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose 4B-Concanavalin A column and was used to determine its capability to interact with erythrocytes and platelets. The purified FVIII/VWF complex at 6.0 and 12 microg/ml agglutinates rabbit and bovine erythrocytes, and showed negative agglutination with erythrocytes from other species including human ABO. Treatment of erythrocytes with Clostridium perfringens sialidase or trypsin increased four-fold the activity toward rabbit erythrocytes and positive agglutination for human A and B erythrocytes, suggesting the presence of FVIII/VWF-cryptic receptors in these erythrocytes. Goat, pig, or human O erythrocytes were not agglutinated even after enzymatic treatment. Fucose or N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), at 10 mM, inhibited agglutinating activity of the complex with rabbit, human A and B erythrocytes, whereas galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamine, even at 200 mM, showed no effect on the complex activity. The FVIII/VWF complex, at 1.5 microg/200,000 platelets, significantly decreased platelet aggregation (p < 0.001) when compared with the effect of platelet-rich plasma; this effect was inhibited with 15 mM GlcNAc or fucose. ELISA assays on FVIII/VWF coated polystyrene plates confirmed specific binding to fucose- or biotinylated GlcNAc-dextran derivatives. We therefore propose that the FVIII/VWF complex possesses lectin activity.
92 Potential use of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lectin for diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Pérez-Campos-Mayoral L, Ruiz-Argüelles A, Pérez-Romano B, Zenteno E, Hernández-Cruz P, Martínez-Cruz R, Martínez-Cruz M, Pina-Canseco S, Pérez-Campos E.Tohoku J Exp Med. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of cancer in children. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins from plants or animals that recognize oligossacharides on the cell surface and have been used to characterize the structural changes of oligosaccharides in leukemias. In this study, we used the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium (M. rosenbergii), specific for acetyl groups in sialylated glycans, because increased sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been identified in lymphoblastic leukemias. We compared the specificity of the M. rosenbergii lectin for lymphoblastic leukemias with the specificities of the lectins from Triticum vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Arachis hipogaea, and Phytolacca americana. By morphologic and phenotype characterization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we identified four types of leukemias from 106 leukemia patients: 11 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 61 cases of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 24 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 10 cases of acute biphenotypic leukemia. As determined by cytofluorometric assays, nine of the eleven cases with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (8 +/- 3 years old) were specifically identified with the lectin from M. rosenbergii. In contrast, only six cases of B-cell leukemia, one case of myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 cases of biphenotypic leukemia were identified with this M. rosenbergii lectin. The other lectins tested showed no capacity to differentiate, in a significant manner, any of the four types of leukemias tested. Thus, the lectin from M. rosenbergii could be considered a useful tool for the diagnosis and study of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
93 Role of concanavalin A lectin in recognition of pterygium remnant after surgical excision: preliminary results of a prospective study Díaz-González JA, Mayoral-Chávez MA, Bohórquez PL, de la Torre Mdel P, Hernández-Cruz P, Martínez-Cruz R, Pérez-Campos E.

Background: Pterygium is one of the most common conjunctival diseases among ophthalmic pathologies. The frequency of recurrences is high, either after surgical treatment or after treatment combined with mitomycin C or beta-radiation therapy.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether concanavalin A (ConA) lectin bound to the pterygial surface can be used to detect recurrence or remnants of pterygium after surgical excision.

Materials and methods: This was a prospective study on 20 patients with pterygium, divided in five stages, pre-surgery, early post-surgery (24h), late post-surgery (seven days), very late post-surgery (four weeks) and two months after the procedure. A drop of fluorescein-marked Con A (35 microg/mL) was instilled in the lower conjunctival eyelid sac and the eye was exposed to the light of a Wood's lamp for an average of five seconds.

Results: Out of the 20 patients, eight patients were found to have fluorescent stretch marks over the scar corresponding to residual pterygial tissue at four weeks; two months after the procedure of re-surgery we observed no fluorescent remnants. All residual pterygia were confirmed through histochemistry studies.

Conclusion: It was possible to detect remnants of pterygium in postoperative patients and recurrences in early pre-clinical stages through the visualization of fluorescent ConA bound to the pterygial surface.

94 Use of amaranthus leucocarpus lectin to differentiate cervical dysplasia (CIN) Alterations in O-glycosylation of proteins in cell surfaces can originate disorder in cellular function, as well as in cell transformation and tumoral differentiation. In this work, we investigate changes in O-glycosylation in cervical intraepithelial dysplasia (CIN) at different stages of differentiation (CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III) using lectins specific for O-glycosidically linked glycans. Twenty cases with CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III dysplasias each, and 20 normal cases were studied by lectin histochemistry and evaluated under optical microscopy. The lectins from Glycine max and Griffonia simplicifolia showed no differences in their recognition pattern among the different CIN stages and normal tissue. Dolichos Biflorus lectin recognized CIN I dysplasia. Lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus showed increased reactivity in the presence of CIN II dysplasia, compared with CIN I and CIN III. These results suggest that subtle modifications in the O-glycosylation pattern could be considered in diagnosis or prognosis of cervical precancerous stages.
95 Interaction of the protein C activation peptide with platelets. Martínez-Cruz R, Canseco Mdel S, Lopez-Martínez J, Cruz PA, Pérez-Campos E, Cruz MM, Alva FC, Majluf-Cruz A, Zenteno E, Ruiz-Argüelles A. The peptide NH(2)-DTEDQEDQVDPR-COOH is released during activation of protein C zymogen. We measured the effect of a synthetic peptide with an amino acid sequence similar to that of the natural peptide on platelets from healthy individuals using platelet aggregometry. We found that this synthetic peptide inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin; furthermore, it diminishes mobilization of intraplatelet calcium. Molecular docking showed weak interaction between the synthetic peptide and thrombin. Our findings suggest that this synthetic peptide may interact with a receptor located on the platelet cell membrane.
96 Detección de drogas de abuso en orina y sus adulterantes Laura Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Eduardo Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Ruth Martínez-Cruz, Eduardo Pérez-Campos. Se hace una revisión sobre las pruebas para detectar drogas de abuso en orina, la evolución de los puntos de corte, la sensibilidad de los inmunoensayos, el tipo de anticuerpos que se emplean en estos análisis, y los adulterantes más comunes que se usan para enmascarar una prueba positiva.
97 Identificación forense de fluido seminal. Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Eduardo Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Lucia Martínez Martínez, Pedro Hernández Cruz, Eduardo Pérez-Campos. Presentamos una revisión de los métodos empleados para detectar e identificar el fluido seminal, como es el examen microscópico, detección de fosfatasa ácida y el antígeno prostático específico. Adicionalmente comentamos respecto a las técnicas basadas en el DNA para la identificación de individuos.
98 Métodos para detectar restos de disparos de armas de fuego Eduardo Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Flor De Ma. Harp I, Pedro Hernández-Cruz, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Eduardo Pérez-Campos. En este artículo se hace una revisión de los métodos de laboratorio que se han empleado para detectar que una persona ha disparado un arma de fuego, haciendo referencia a la prueba de la parafina, del rodizonato de sodio, de espectroscopía de emisión por plasma, absorción atómica, y microscopía electrónica de barrido entre las más importantes.
99 [Inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy study of trace elements in gallstones from different regions of Oaxaca State] Martínez-Luna MS, Guzmán-Ortiz D, Herrera-Colmenares E, Flores Samaniego B, Martínez-Cruz R, Pérez-Campos E.
100 [Prevalence of non-alcoholic esteatohepatitis in adults with metabolic syndrome in Oaxaca] Alvarez-Martínez HE, Pérez-Campos E, Leyva-Bohórquez P. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that occurs in patients with no significant alcohol consumption, characterized for macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate and various grades of fibrosis and, in some cases, Mallory bodies. The prevalence of this disease is unknown; recent studies indicate that in the general population, incidence is about 3%, although the rates are higher in some subpopulations as are obesity and diabetes mellitus. The goal of this work was to determine the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in one sample of patients with the metabolic syndrome, patients at "Presidente Juárez" Regional Hospital. It was a cross-sectional and descriptive study in which, by means of random selection a sample of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, alone or in combination was chosen. We carried out a clinical and laboratory evaluation, selecting those patients with persistent elevation of aminotransferases for whom additional studies were made, in order to exclude other causes of enzyme abnormality. Five patients were selected for percutaneous liver biopsy, all they had NASH. The prevalence of NASH was 4.54%. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of these patients will be discussed in the article.
101 [Causality in medicine] Alvarez-Martínez H, Pérez-Campos E. The concept of causality is a part of every day life because man has always searched for the why of things as a way of dealing with and adapting to the world. In medicine, one of the central aims of study is identification of the factors or agents that cause disease with the intention of establishing treatments and especially, to apply preventive strategies. In this work, we conducted a brief review of the philosophical positions on causality, its biological models, as well as the tools used in clinical epidemiology to evaluate causal associations.
102 [Pathogenic molecular mechanisms in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis] Alvarez-Martínez HE, Montaño-Estrada LF, Hernández-Cruz P, Pérez-Campos E. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic disease that occurs in persons without significative consumption of alcohol, characterized by macrovesicular steatosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, and diverse degrees of fibrosis. It can progress to cirrhosis and its evolution to hepatocellular carcinoma has been described. It principally occurs in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, and is at present considered a manifestation of metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance. In pathogenesis, diverse factors, fundamentally insulin resistance as a mechanism that determines hepatic steatosis, have been described. Later, alteration of signalling cascades, oxidative stress, and other mechanisms occur that lead to inflammation, necrosis, and finally to hepatic fibrosis, the details of which will be described in this review.
103 [Bone mineral density and 17 beta-estradiol correlation in postmenopausal women] Cárdenas Morales BE, Pérez Campos E, Gatica Valdez N.

Background: With the increased life-expectancy reached during 20th century, women will spend a very important part of their lives in the estrogenic deficiency state accompanying menopause.

Objectives: To detect serum 17beta-estradiol levels, bone mineral density values, and to see the correlation between both parameters as well as with postmenopausal period.

Material and methods: A transversal study with ambulatory, community-dwelling postmenopausal women from Oaxaca de Juárez, Oax. was performed.

Results: We studied 70 women with spontaneous menopause, medium values were: age, 55.9 +/- 5.4 yr; menopause age, 48 +/- 3 yr; postmenopausal period, 7.9 +/- 5.3 yr; body mass index, 28.3 +/- 5.4, and serum 17beta-estradiol by radioimmunoassay, 62.78 +/- 25.83 pg/mL. Quantitative calcaneous ultrasound was used to measure bone mineral density and we found 30 women with normal level (-1.0 to 1.4 SD), 29 with osteopenia (-1.1 to -2.3 SD) and only 2 subjects with osteoporosis (-2.7 to 2.8 SD).

Conclusions: Statistical analysis shows that bone mineral density and postmenopausal period were significantly correlated (p<0.05) as well as serum 17beta-estradiol levels with postmenopausal period; nevertheless, no correlation between bone mineral density and serum 17beta-estradiol or body mass index (p>0.05) was found. On the other hand, it is remarkable high serum 17beta-estradiol levels found in this group, related with postmenopausal status. These latter results are different from those reported in the literature.

104 [A new thrombophilia risk factor: the increase of plasma factor VIII] Hernández-Jerónimo J, Pérez-Campos E, Matadamas C, Majluf-Cruz A. Factor VIII (FVIII) is key component of the fluid phase of the blood coagulation system. Recent evidence suggests a direct relationship between high plasma levels of FVIII and an increased risk for arterial and venous thrombosis. Thus material reviews the most important clinical and epidemiological evidence about this prothrombotic association. Main function of FVIII is to activate FX functioning as a cofactor for activated FIX in the presence of phospholipids and calcium. Since its deficiency has been historically associated with a hemorrhagic disease (namely hemophilia A), it was never studied its role in thrombosis. In order to explain the association FVIII and thrombosis, defects in its synthesis that increase its plasma concentration as well as postranslational modifications that allow a higher activity, have been proposed. Since 1977 it was suggested that increased plasma concentrations of FVIII and thrombosis may be associated. Shortly after, several other studies confirmed this association. Indeed, patients with stroke of acute myocardial infarction having high plasma levels of FVIII have a shorter survival. On the other hand, deep venous thrombosis is more frequent in patients with high plasma levels of FVIII. This rise in plasma FVIII concentration is also associated with recurrent venous thrombosis. The increment of plasma FVIII concentration is not due to an acute phase reaction. Plasma concentrations of FVIII above 100-150 IU/dL increase 3-fold the risk of thrombosis while concentrations above 150 IU/dL increase the the same risk 6-fold. While it is established the real importance of FVIII as a cause of thrombosis, every patient at risk of thrombosis must have a quantification of this factor. Evaluation of plasma FVIII concentration must be performed in patients with suspected thrombophilia since there is evidence that shows that high plasma FVIII levels is an independent thrombophilic risk factor. There are not effective therapeutic interventions able to normalize the high concentrations of FVIII. Therefore, appropriate prophylaxis during high thrombosis risk clinical episodes is the best alternative for the patient.
105 [Bibliographic review. The role of hypoestrogenism in postmenopausal osteoporosis--new perspectives] Cárdenas Morales BE, Pérez Campos E. Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in a significative bone loss, which is thought to be the result of an imbalance in bone remodeling process between formation activity and resorption, where the later is functionally higher than normal and could develop osteopenia or osteoporosis type I. Although it has been made a lot of scientific investigations to explain the way by hypoestrogenism affect skeleton, the renal mechanism remains unclear and it seems to be multifactorial. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyze the new perspectives about the effects of serum estradiol levels on bone tissue; special emphasize is made concerning the role of: estrogen receptors, cytokines, RANKL/RANK/OPG system, PTH and PTHrP, bone turnover markers, osteocytes apoptosis, estrogens serum levels and its metabolic pathways.
106 Analysis of the lectins from teosinte (Zea diploperennis) and maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles Martínez-Cruz M, Pérez-Campos E, Zenteno E, Córdoba F. To identify molecular evidence of the common origin of maize and teosinte, a lectin from teosinte coleoptile (TCL) was purified, through affinity chromatography on a lactosyl-Sepharose column, and some of the physicochemical parameters were compared with those from the maize coleoptile lectin (CCL). TCL is a 92 kDa glycoprotein constituted mainly by aspartic, glutamic, glycine, leucine, and lysine residues; in minor proportion, methionine and cysteine were also found. The glycannic portion of the lectin, which corresponds to 10% w/w, is composed by Gal, Man, and GlcNAc. CCL is an 88.7 kDa glycoprotein that contains 12% sugars by weight; its sugar and amino acid compositions are similar to those of TCL. TCL is formed by two isoforms identified through acidic electrophoresis, whereas CCL is constituted by a single molecular form. The NH(2) termini of both TCL isoforms are blocked, but their amino acid sequences determined from tryptic peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) indicated that TCL isoforms have no homology with other mono- or dicotyledonous lectins, including CCL. TCL, just as CCL, showed hemagglutinating activity toward animal erythrocytes, including human A, B, and O. Hapten inhibition assays indicated that although TCL shows broader sugar specificity than CCL, it recognizes Gal in O- and N-glycosidically linked glycans. Both lectins are equally well recognized by antibodies against TCL.
107 Chemical characterization of root exudates from rice (Oryza sativa) and their effects on the chemotactic response of endophytic bacteria Macario Bacilio-Jiménez, Sara Aguilar-Flores, Elsa Ventura-Zapata, Eduardo Pérez-Campos, Stephane Bouquelet and Edgar Zenteno. Root exudates represent an important source of nutrients for microorganisms in the rhizosphere and seem to participate in early colonization inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. We characterized the root exudates collected from rice plantlets cultured under hydroponic conditions and assessed their effects on the chemotaxis of two strains of endophytic bacteria, Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus, collected from the rice rhizosphere. We compared these chemotactic effects on endophytic bacteria with those on two strains of plant-growth-promoting bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense (isolated from the corn rhizosphere) and Bacillus sp. (from the rice rhizosphere). The root exudates were collected at different time intervals. The highest concentration and diversity of amino acids and carbohydrates were found during the first 2 weeks after seeding. Histidine, proline, valine, alanine, and glycine were the main amino acid residues identified during the 4 weeks of culture. The main carbohydrates identified were glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucuronic acid. The chemotactic responses of the analyzed endophytic bacteria to root exudates were 3.9 to 5.1 times higher than those of A. brasilense and 2.2 to 2.8 times higher than Bacillus sp. Our results indicate that rice exudates may induce a higher chemotactic response for endophytic bacteria than for other bacterial strains present in the rice rhizosphere.
108 Efecto de la concanavalina a en el cultivo del fitopatógeno Ustilago maydis. Elsa Saavedra Hernández, Alma Pérez Santiago, Eduardo Pérez Campos, Félix Córdoba Alva.
109 [Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis]. Alvarez-Martínez H, Pérez-Campos E. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease that occurs in patients with no significant alcohol consumption; it is not histologically different from alcoholic hepatitis because it presents macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular necrosis, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, and various stages of fibrosis in addition Mallory bodies in some patients. Some authors have even described NASH as a benign disease; however, it is presently considered a potentially serious disease that may evolve into liver cirrhosis and probably, liver cancer. It is more often related to female sex, obesity, and dyslipidemia, although it may be present in other population groups and associated with other factors. Its origin may be multifactorial, including insulin resistance, protein glycation, oxidative stress, and others. The disease may be asymptomatic and found in routine physical exams when the patient shows increased aminotransferases with no other explanation. At present the only specific diagnosis procedure is liver biopsy. The sole available current treatment is body weight control, normalizing glucose and lipid blood levels, as well as the administration of some medication, as illustrated in the subsequent article.
110 Effect of plant lectins on Ustilago maydis in vitro Santiago AP, Saavedra E, Pérez Campos E, Córdoba F. Ustilago maydis is an edible parasitic basidiomycete, which specifically infects corn (Zea mays) and teocintle (Z. diploperennis). To characterise the interaction between the basidiomycete and its host organism, we tested the effect of plant lectins with well-known sugar specificity on the growth and germination of U. maydis spores. Lectins specific for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, such as those from Dolichos biflorus and Phaseolus lunatus, and the wheatgerm agglutinin specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine inhibited spore germination, but were ineffective in modifying U. maydis cell growth. The galactose-specific lectin from the corn coleoptyle inhibited both germination and cell growth, while the lectin concanavalin A (mannose/glucose specific) activated spore germination and growth. Our results suggest that specific saccharide-containing receptors participate in regulating the growth and maturation of U. maydis spores.
111 Factor tisular en células mononucleares y resistencia a la proteína C en pacientes con preeclampsia. Ruth Martínez Cruz, Miguel Ángel Mayoral Chávez, Gabriel Mayoral Andrade, Félix Córdoba Alva, Rodolfo Mayoral Figueroa, Eduardo Pérez Campos. Hay evidencia de la presencia de alteraciones en la coagulación que pueden agravar el estado de preeclampsia. Por una parte se ha involucrado a las células mononucleares y por tanto a la generación de factor tisular y por otra a la resistencia a la proteína C como mecanismos en la etiopatogenia de problemas trombóticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar estos factores en una muestra de 20 mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia y 20 mujeres embarazadas sanas. Estadísticamente no se encontraron diferencias con relacion a uno y otro grupo, con la salvedad de 2 mujeres del grupo con preeclampsia que mostraron resistencia a la proteína C.(AU).
112 Effects of concanavalin A on protein-C activity Martínez-Cruz R, Córdoba F, Mireles-López JC, Zenteno E, Pérez-Ortega E, Martínez M, Pérez-Campos E. Concanavalin A interacts specifically with the oligosaccharides from protein-C and modifies its anticoagulant activity. The lectin activates the protein-C activity in a dose dependent manner as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Concanavalin A at low concentration (0.1 to 2 microg/mL) induces an increase on the catalytic activity of protein-C; at higher concentrations (5 to 20 microg/mL), the catalytic activity returns to the baseline. The effect of concanavalin A was prevented by incubating the protein-C with alpha-methyl-mannoside or by treating the purified protein-C with alpha-mannosidase; furthermore, cleavage of mannosidic residues diminishes its catalytic activity. Our results indicate that the oligomannosidic portion of protein-C participates in the regulation of the catalytic activity of this protein.
113 El macrófago en la vía de la hemostasia. Eduardo Perez-Campos, Félix Córdoba Alva, Eduardo Pérez Ortega.
114 Erythroagglutinin from Phaseolus coccineus Var. Alubia: Chemical Characterization, Sugar Specificity, and Effect on Blood Coagulation Factors. Eduardo Pérez-Campos,Ricardo Lascurain,Claudia Sierra, Blanca Espinosa,Henri Debray, Stephane Bouquelet, and, and Edgar Zenteno. Purification of the erythroagglutinin from Phaseolus coccineus var. Alubia was achieved by affinity chromatography on human α1-acid glycoprotein and by ion exchange chromatography. The lectin is a tetrameric glycoprotein of 31 kDa/subunit with 8% sugar by weight, which agglutinates erythrocytes without serological specificity and is devoid of mitogenic activity toward human peripheral lymphocytes. The specificity of the erythroagglutinin is directed toward the Gal (β1−4) or (β1−3) GlcNAc (β1−2) Man (α1-) saccharidic sequence present in bi- or triantennary N-acetyllactosamine-type N-glycopeptides or related glycans. Alubia erythroagglutinin inhibits the generation of human thrombin, very probably by protecting prothrombin from enzymatic cleavage.
115 [Recent advances in thrombophilia] Córdoba Alva F, Pérez Campos E.
116 Purification of protein C a natural anticoagulant, from human plasma by affinity chromatography with Convanavalin A Pérez-Campos E, Córdoba F, Pérez-Ortega E, Martínez M, Zenteno E. We have developed a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive method to purify protein C from plasma using Concanavalin A conjugated to Sepharose. With this method we have obtained protein C purified to homogeneity, as measured in polyacrylamide gels. We discuss each of the steps of our method and give the results of the purification.
117 Inhibition of protein C activity with plants lectins in vitro. Pérez-Campos E, Pérez Ortega E, Felix Córdoba A, Zenteno E.
118 Bioquímica de la proteína C de la coagulación. Pérez-Campos E, Pérez Ortega E, Felix Córdoba A, Zenteno E. Revista Iberoamericana De Trombosis Y Hemostasia. 1994; 7: 131-135.
119 Glycosidic interactions and the function of the coagulation factor oligosaccharides. Pérez-Campos E, Pérez Ortega E, Felix Córdoba A, Zenteno E. Revista Iberoamericana De Trombosis Y Hemostasia 1994;7:144-145.
120 Investigación de Blastocystis hominis en heces. Pérez Campos E, Pérez Ortega E. Revista Mexicana De Patología Clínica. 1990;37(3), 37-39.
121 Investigación de antígenos HIV en grupos de riesgo. Pérez Ortega Eduardo, Pérez Campos Eduardo. Infectología 1988;8 (9):437-440.
# Nombre Autores Descripcion Enlace
1 PLANT DERMATOLOGY (EDITOR). Félix Cordoba, E. Pérez-Campos, Patricia Magaña. Bromeliaceae. In: Avalos Javier. Maibach Hi. CRC PRESS. 2000 ISBN 0-8493-7361-1
Número Informacion
Nº10017520700 IMPI. Paz Ma. Salazar Schettino, Margarita Cabrera Bravo, Martha Irene Bucio Torres, Francisco Hernández Luis, Eduardo L Pérez Campos, Socorro Pina Canseco, Juan Luis Bautista Martínez, Adriana Moreno Rodríguez. 5-[(2-nitro-4-(trifluorometil)fenil)tio]-2-furaldehido tiosemicarbazona y su uso como antiparasitario y antibacteriano. Mayo 2014. UNAM
# Nombre Autores Descripcion Enlace
1 Resultados falsos negativos de los ensayos iniciales de RT-PCR para COVID-19: una revisión sistemática. Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez, Diana Buitrago-Garcia, Daniel Simancas-Racines, Paula Zambrano-Achig, Rosa Del Campo, Agustin Ciapponi, Omar Sued, Laura Martinez-García, Anne W Rutjes, Nicola Low, Patrick M Bossuyt, Jose A Perez-Molina, Javier Zamora.

Background: A false-negative case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is defined as a person with suspected infection and an initial negative result by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, with a positive result on a subsequent test. False-negative cases have important implications for isolation and risk of transmission of infected people and for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to review and critically appraise evidence about the rate of RT-PCR false-negatives at initial testing for COVID-19.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, as well as COVID-19 repositories, including the EPPI-Centre living systematic map of evidence about COVID-19 and the Coronavirus Open Access Project living evidence database. Two authors independently screened and selected studies according to the eligibility criteria and collected data from the included studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. We calculated the proportion of false-negative test results using a multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model. The certainty of the evidence about false-negative cases was rated using the GRADE approach for tests and strategies. All information in this article is current up to July 17, 2020.

Results: We included 34 studies enrolling 12,057 COVID-19 confirmed cases. All studies were affected by several risks of bias and applicability concerns. The pooled estimate of false-negative proportion was highly affected by unexplained heterogeneity (tau-squared = 1.39; 90% prediction interval from 0.02 to 0.54). The certainty of the evidence was judged as very low due to the risk of bias, indirectness, and inconsistency issues.

Conclusions: There is substantial and largely unexplained heterogeneity in the proportion of false-negative RT-PCR results. The collected evidence has several limitations, including risk of bias issues, high heterogeneity, and concerns about its applicability. Nonetheless, our findings reinforce the need for repeated testing in patients with suspicion of SARS-Cov-2 infection given that up to 54% of COVID-19 patients may have an initial false-negative RT-PCR (very low certainty of evidence).

# Nombre Autores Portada
1 Una fusión dinámica entre ciencia y creatividad Pérez Campos Eduardo Lorenzo, Chávez Rosa Aurora, Zenteno Galindo Edgar, PérezCampos Mayoral Eduardo, Cruz Cortés Guilebaldo, Pérez Campos Mayoral Laura.
2 Algoritmos diagnósticos en medicina Pérez Campos Eduardo Lorenzo, Mayoral Andrade Gabriel, Majlu Cruz Abraham, Pérez Campos Mayoral Laura, Zenteno Galindo Edgar, Cruz Cortés Guilebaldo.
3 Tópicos selectos de patología clínica Pérez Campos Eduardo, Majlu Cruz Abraham, Pérez Ortega Eduardo.
4 ISBN 978-607-17-2735-0: Laboratorio clínico, pruebas diagnósticas y su interpretacion clínica. Autores: Eduardo L. Pérez-Campos, Edgar Zenteno, Abraham Majluf Cruz, Eduardo Pérez Ortega, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral. 2016.